Skip to main content

Full text of "The mineral conchology of Great Britain; or, Coloured figures and descriptions of those remains of testaceous animals or shells, which have been preserved at various times and depths in the earth"

See other formats

Pibrary of the Museum 


Founded by private subscription, in 1861. 


TN . 



‘ y 














Many, O Lord my God, are thy wonderful works which thou hast done; 
they cannot be reekoned up in order to thee: if I would declare and speak 
of them, they are more than can be numbered, 

Psaum xl, 5. 



nan eee 


Printed by ARDING and MERRETT, 21, Old Boswell Court, Carey Street. 

And sold by the Author, J. Sowrrsy, No. 2, Mead Place, Lambeth; 
SuErwoop and Co. Paternoster Row, 
And by all Booksellers in Town and Country. 





i “¢ a ver ri é 


™ ‘att 
' th chMe wik Liab 7? +4 TP Mag ae ‘ co iff 
ye i 4 “ > ite ; oi wy 
¥ " . 
ies vives ‘yours ? 
; 8 AN ROR BELLA HO. Saab ea 
Toe ha Say So we Se Ne an eee Cah ear 0 = 
i . , , Jie. an ; } my) ~ 
otter ted ends Ait 6 gee a ee 4b) owe, 33 ato yi? er ty ‘fel 
* P oe , Sad « ohegy & throw f ‘ i \ (ie wig hung 2 
j pat Tra 4 3 4 Hasty : age / ‘ mY 
t ‘ 
‘ 1 20 mB . et 
+ a 
Ady OS 
@ are ae a) j 
at “Caos was AdMAAD. t. 
1 Yap i 4 ' veal } irr 
awe ai | ane hatiand hina Mie AL Sing So its i oagatee fat ‘ hi 


 eitbatene.: 9 Feel PitasdA A <iiee anne Bayt! Tht te ae ) 

ya i ot ri) “¥ Mier ‘a sae , hak ty J 

a 7. a dua 

eidivel a J, hae Jide, yal his ' 

, tlh ay Ah yA 

i) fa) nite he 

AMMONITES splendens. 

Spec. Cuar. Involute, depressed, front flat with 
crenulated edges ; inner whorls three parts con- 
cealed, few; sides flat; radii alternately one 
long and two short; aperture long. 

Corne d’ Ammon fort plate, unié ét ornée de 
fleurs. Bourguet Traité des Petrifications. 
pl. 48. f. 312. 


Ture whorls are in number about three, quickly diminish- 
ing, the aperture being half the diameter of the shell long 
at the back, one fourth wide; the front narrower. The 
long radii are very prominent near the centre of the 
shell, and obscure towards the middle of the whorls; near 
the front they are again prominent, and together with the 
short ones form the crenulated margin; they all curve a 
little towards the mouth. The middle of the front is nearly 
plane. The cast is ornamented in the same way as the 
external surface. 

This beautiful species is found in a pyritaceous marle at 
Folkstone in Kent. I received specimens from Mr. Dill- 
wyn, and also from the indefatigable Mr. Gibbs. I do 
not yet know of their being found elsewhere, although some 
other of the Folkstone species are found in Sussex. The 
shell often remains: it is extremely thin, and of a cream 
colour, except where it has become partly decomposed, 
when it often exhibits the most splendent iridescent lustre, 
equal to those Ammonites, &c. enyelloped in the Carinthian 

Youn. If. 

Fon a, 
\7 ‘ 


marble, and I think superior to the Broad Marston Am« 
monites mentioned by Dr. Maton in his Tour, II. p. 21. 
(Ammonites planicosta figured in my plate 73.) Fig. 2. 
shows a good specimen; imagination must supply the 
figure with lustre, which when the surface is made pellucid 
with wet is most perfect, yet if gummed is nearly oblit- 
erated. Fig. 1 is a small specimen which is less angular 
but contains the centre (which is commonly lost in larger 
or older specimens) whole: at the top, near the figure, is 
a small vestige of the siphuncle, nearly black, which in 
some specimens is preserved very distinctly, while it ap- 
pears, from others which are far more perfect, impossible 
for a siphuncle to exist: it is in the front as is most com- 
mon. Figure 3 is a pyritaceous cast, and exhibits the 
foliated sutures which are more or less conspicuous and a 
little peculiar in the continuous structure below the higher 
risings of the radii, which are rather blunter than in the 
upper figure. A species nearly resembling this is, I be- 
lieve, found at Westbrook in Wilts. 

AMMONITES Calloviensis. 

Spec. Cuar. Involute, subumbilicate, rather de- 
pressed; volutions about five, three-fourths 
concealed; front flat; radii small, very numer- 
ous, alternately one long and from two to five 
short, obscure in the latter whorls of old 
shells; aperture orbicular when young, deltoid 
with the angles truncated when old. ‘ne 

plein alt a0 

Ace makes a great difference in the form of the whorls of 
this shell, the young ones being roundish, and having 
numerous sharp radii in sets, composed of one long one 
very prominent at the commencement, and from two to five 
about two-thirds the length, and all passing over the front. 
The outer whorls of full grown shells are triangular, the 
two inner angles being truncated, so as to give the shell an 
umbilicate appearance; the surface is largely undulated, 
wrinkled near the back, and has many irregular strie in 
the place of radii: the inner surface differs from the outer 
only in the larger whorls being free from strie and losing 
the radii sooner. : 

Found in a more or less mutilated state very abundantly 
in the shelly Limestone at Calloways or Kellaways Bridge. 
I have received specimens from many kind friends. Fig. 1 
in the plate was sent me by my friend Mr. Salmon of Dee 
vizes, and I picked up the specimen from which Fig. 2 is 


drawn envelloped in a rough piece of Limestone on the 
road near Chatley; it is much stained with rust of Iron, 
but was said to have been brought from Kellaways Bridge. 
Much of the shell is sometimes preserved of a dirty or 
ochraceously-stained white; it is rather thick, and does not 
seem much altered: in the older shells it is generally broken 
away, especially in the latter whorl, where perhaps the 
chambers have not been formed, as well as lower down, 
where the divisions are perhaps not so strong, on account 
of the breadth of their construction: the cast in this case 
exhibits something of swollen large undulations, but rarely 
the costz, and would not, if detached, be known as part of 
the same shell. It is composed of sandy Limestone; the 
chambers contain crystallized Carbonate of Lime: in some 
cases no vestige of the siphuncle could be perceived, but 
Fig. 1 shows it near the upper edge. 

Fig. 3 exhibits a specimen given me by the Rey. H. 
Steinhauer: it seems to be a much rarer variety than the 
other, and is seldom found so perfect; it has similar bi- 
valves, &c. about its matrix as the other has, denoting a 
similar locality. This was taken out of a piece about two 
inches in diameter; it distinctly shows the siphuncle which 
is coloured black, whereas the rest of the shell is nearly 
white Carbonate of Lime. Possibly good specimens might 
prove this beautiful little shell to be a distinct species: it 
differs in having a rather rounded front, the edges of which 
are defined by sharpish tubercles just on the bend of the 
radii; the radii also are more prominent near the centre, 
and the aperture rather lunulate. 

AMMONITES excavatus. 

Spec. Cuar. Involute, lenticular, subumbilicate; 
keel sharpish, crenulated; whorls about six, 
those of the young shell exposed ; inner margin 
nearly right-angled; radii curved, obscure in 
full grown shells; aperture in adult shells 
sagittate; inner angles truncated. 

(+ SS ee 

A surcur concavity separates the keel from the remaining 
uniformly convex sides; the radii, which in the last-formed 
whorls of full-grown shells are little more than irregular 
strie, are in the first whorls very prominent over the inner 
angles; these angles in the young shell are rounded, and 
have not the flat space which in the old shells forms a 
partial umbilicus. The length of the aperture is about half 
that of the diameter of the shell, and the width at the back 
about one-third. The chambers are rather distinct. 

I had the pleasure of picking this up a few years ago on 
the productive hill of Shotover near Oxford, and as I saw 
no more specimens it may possibly be rare. The shell 
which is replaced by Carbonate of Lime is moderately 
thick, and appears very exact in most parts. The cham- 
bers are commonly hollow, and crystallized within; the 
thin septa are also distinctly replaced by Carbonate of Lime. 
The finishing chamber, which would add a fourth to the 
size of the whole, and which I have separate, is filled with 


a granular Limestone, similar to that in which it was found, 
and which is quarried there for paving, building, &c. The 
perpendicular inner margin of the whorls is three-eighths of 
an inch on the biggest part; thus the umbilicus is deep, 
although commencing rather suddenly at the fourth whorl, 
the bottom is consequently nearly flat, composed of four or 
five whorls, and very perfect, to the minutest. I was glad 
to discover the proper place for the siphuncle, expressed on 
the upper edge, by breaking the shell in looking for the 
contour of the chambers. 

This somewhat resembles Amaltheus margaritatus of De 
Montfort, t. 23, p. 91. The place of the siphuncle is of 
much consequence in distinguishing them, as his is in the 
middle of the inner margin. | 

AMMONITES Walcotii. 

Spec. Cuar. Involute, depressed; volutions four, 
three-fourths exposed, with a concentrate fur-~ 
row; lunate undulations over half the sides; 
front with a carina between two furrows. 

en PI ee 

Aventure oblong, its length equal to one-third of the 
diameter of the shell: the sides are flatted; each whorl is 
divided into two parts by an obtuse furrow; the inner half 
is nearly smooth, the other marked by semi-lunar depressions. 

This species is much spread about; I have it in ferru- 
ginous marly Limestone from near Bath—from Llantrissant 
near Cardiff by favour of Miss Hill—and from White 
Lackington Park. I have specimens marked Devonshire 
and River Trent. It is abundant in clayey Ironstone or 
black marle at Colebrook dale, with blend or black Sul- 
phuret of Zinc, and included in balls in the dark pyrit- 
aceous or Alum Clay at Whitby. 

The species generally runs from two to four inches in 
diameter; the shell is laminated and scaly, composed of 
two, three or more coats, and rather deep, yet the sutures 
of the septa continue to near the outside, and the form is 
the same throughout the cast, differing from the outside 
ornament or pattern only in the greater depth of the furrow. 
The insides are divided by various crystallizations of Car- 
bonate of Lime or Iron, or more solid or earthy, and more 


or less distinct in the divisions or chambers, agreeably to 
the nature of the stratum in which the specimens are feund. 
The section figured is from a Bath specimen, and shows 
several varieties of compact earthy marle, dendritical, &c. 
and the divisions more or less perfect, or obliterated, as it 
was cut rather irregularly, and the double line of the siphun- — 
culus is in some places very unintelligible; it is, however, 
very conspicuous in many specimens just under the thin 
shell of the keel, and appears to be nearly continuous. 
Walcot’s figure (Bath Petrifactions, fig. 41, p. 32) appears 
a worn specimen, the inner whorls being destitute of trans- 
verse cost. Its foliated sutures are sometimes more distinct. 


AMMONITES angulatus. 
TAB. CVI.—Fig. 1. 

Spec. Cuar. Involute; volutions six or more, 
exposed, angular at the back within; radii 
prominent, split over the frout, commencing 
in the cast from a narrow concave space. 


Ture aperture is rather longer than wide, its width equals 
one-fifth the diameter of the shell; around the concentric 
angle at the inner part of the whorl is a narrow concave 
space, from the outer part of which commence the radii: 
this angle and the concave space are indistinct on the out- 
side of the shell. | 

I received this, I think, rare and curious specimen from 
the Whitby Alum Clay, by favour of Mr. J. M. Sowerby, 
among various other specimens. The line at the inner 
part is apparently only in the cast, the small shelly part 
remaining on the specimen being destitute of it. The shell 
appears to be replaced by a mixture of pyrites, Carbonate 
of Iron, and Limey marle, but more stony within. The 
sinuated margins of the septa are rather close, but not par- 
ticular or very distinct; if any thing they are more acute 
than inthe A. communis. I have not seen the. siphuncle 
or plains of the septa, but I presume they bear a close 
resemblance to the following. Indeed the resemblance 
between this species and communis is so general, that if 
the internal angle were not observed, it would, from its 
external appearance, be considered as the same, yet I 
expect it is always more ovate in the opening, with an 
approach to a flattish front. The shell seems somewhat 
laminated. The forked divisions in the front of the shell 
turn upwards in both. 


AMMONITES communis. 
TAB. CVII.—Figs. 2, and 3. 

Srec. Cuar. Involute; volutions’ six or more, 
exposed; radii annular, prominent, split over 
the front; aperture circular. 

Syn. Corne d’ Ammon a raies doublées vers le haut 
du dos. Bourguet, &c. pl. 42. f. 276. 

Tur aperture about one-fifth the diameter of the shell. 
The radii, which in the cast commence quite at the inside 
of each whorl, are continued nearly straight to the round 
front, over which they are sometimes forked and sometimes 
divided and united again on the opposite side. 

This species, varyiug a little, is very common in the 
Alum Clay at Whitby; it is mostly dark coloured cal- 
careous matle, shining with pyrites. ‘The Ammonites are 
called in common Snake-stones, and superstition has ac- 
counted for their having been found constantly without 
heads, saying, the curse of St. Cuthbert was the cause of 
it; but as some of the dealers felt it a possible inconvenience, 
they were determined to be less barbarous, and compassion- 
ately supplied some with heads. I was so curious as to de- 
sire to see what sort of heads might be substituted, and Lady 
Wilson kindly procured me a specimen when at Whitby. 
I have figured that specimen for the information ‘of others ; 
see fig. 2. The beatiful Keynsham Ammonites are also 
called Snake-stones, having been changed into stone by 
some devotee for the benefit of his brethren. Fig. 3isa 
small specimen, showing something of the section and sep- 
tum, which is nearly round, exclusive of the space occupied 
by the inner whorl. 

This species is perhaps among the fossil Ophiopomor- 
phites of Plott. 


AMMONITES Nutfieldiensis. 


Spec. Cuar. Involute, volutions four or more, 
nearly concealed; radii numerous, prominent, 
with shorter intermediate ones over the round- 
ing front. Aperture obcordate. 


Sepra rather numerous, elegantly lobed and sinuated in 
the usual way; the intermediate shorter radii, or rather 
undulations, are often in pairs; they extend nearly half 
way over the sides: the longer radii are most prominent 
near the centre. The mouth is two-fifths of the diameter in 
length, and about the same in width; the front rounded. 

Plentiful in the green Sandstone, above the greater beds 
of Fullers Earth in which the fine-coloured Sulphate of 
Barytes, Brit. Min. tab. 237, is imbedded. It is found from 
three inches to a foot in diameter, if I may include some 
specimens which vary a little in the radii. The present 
species has two or three short ones in a set, but some appear 
to have radii regularly the whole length all round. Some 
also appear to be more compressed, others rounder. The 
specimens are chiefly casts in dark Irony clay, ochraceous 
externally, and have sandy Quartz and Chlorite about them. 

A specimen which I have lately received from Hythe in 
green sand is the same species. 

ee wat « ais e at 

8h As Riga si bey ah. nila 7 
ae a STP ueniasiiee Sey oy) oe 
<a rs in ¥, ‘ 2 ,a ae 

a ayaa “te genet eseGabs ishing, atl: mit “aia? 

ania, Rati yet i preety naka 9589: stinieis 

% re 1 plaatiad gelt i960: eee. Mailainiolgy vakaaula: hina Me 
teal BEN ne vival eine emma Reais) gett iu 

Aisha wen radll pode anti ss) 

_ q naar arate ' bn 

A wih ite ee rv 8 meh 
, oF felsic a beicit alinayabs. poensenina: prehinn sche 
aS a Bae 3 Midtar tassihn & etveda. 41 theta oh - raeends re 
Med ghee hid orks oer pic afi Dea saveitishsegy 
te i dattesitn oj Jeon ant thea ween! odt 3 aban hy cote ete 
i ab vasnincil ath te aida ta. dine ons dD Jalen  d¥ sie” f of 
» Sababrvon rast. lh; dihider vi seal welt sects yee ingot aa 
bane Att aad miacye 4d) creda ptmlktonst sven ods aecliiele 
lL. Westerly inB boobed catty dts forte: ak tine er: ee ahs, 
AEN mon haseteitt babbodraret TCs hak wh el pend 'th 
ek otvoa ap inte ryan. Fay: eatwagette > ati dig Bio top both st 
Poepivany: oil A cdnhare tlds whe Mh ae spice: dnidw acu heen | 
1eyhs bios hud |.kos ReRE aR Rods suit, ania antl es 
atin - .Buwot He rihgnshofouker pdidiylinlinen-ichetecend 
pd De \ bayewtanmiio ‘yloieeoncjecvir9 ast ; ed obineepe Om 
agin ema ves Lah: HR nor hiatal abi atidosy yilvide 912! atontiaiega 
aon inode atisohd bapatren Ghee ooo Liga hia 
nol mort pat Niece | stciabee 
| ‘ rity ! ne yuna gi al: 


MUREX striatus, 

Var. a (carinatus) havisg three or four of the 
transverse projections more prominent - than 
the rest, especially the upper ones. 

res we Sheree 

There have been found recent shells very similar to this, 
and bearing the same relation to M. antiguus, Finn. (M. 
despectus, Penn.) as this does to my M. striatus, tab. 22, 
such appears to be the M. carinatus, Penn. I have.a 
recent specimen somewhat carinated, and among a number > 
of Fossil ones a complete series is easily selected. These 
Fossils have often been taken for the same species as the 
recent M. carinatus, but an attentive view of the propor- 
tions of the spire and the last whorl will readily distinguish 
all the varieties: the recent one having a longer spire, 
more like M. contrarius, tab. 23. which also is liable to 
the same carinated variation of form, but in a less degree 
and more rarely. I have endeavoured to show some va- 
riety with the younger shell, selected by Mrs. Cobbold 
from the same pit as M. striatus and M. contrarius, formerly 
figured, and with which the least carinated ones had been 
arranged in pairs. I have also had great variety from the 
Rey. G. R. Leathes and other Suffolk friends. 

Fig. 1 is a moderate sized specimen; fig. 2 shows al- 
most all the projections rather broad; in fig. 3 they are 
more regular; and in fig. 4 they are monstrous, and the 
beak is elongated: fig. 5 is a young shell. 

: pr ) .' 
Py A . o.§ > A, ‘ . 

Me uf ' r © a Ak 
. ‘uhibe id Riss Py ee eRe 


i Date Syrah per RAE (DET BAN IP 
f aye hei ee aed ee 
1 Ne aibePi be a? | 

bag a) + i { fi i Cees Pye iy 

fe ty tf obi D Ie? waite ts a 


‘pinned. iweb 0: Sind wahoniomnxt bo laaiee lavage them 4 
Blutialy y hee ne i *: ihe furs nepeeareten ys wall ak 
Daehn a0 4 AEE: nie ay Key esi hats pei 

‘heres Thy a wget rhoe diehuiaie iva y ange ih v6: 

ee Gat: aaah agis 

oT a cy Be | 

ppucishe jocmabe ks or 
set ton ye Si $2 este 

els v 3 5 rm 

Ay MOVIE A RA mye eae Pea GEE CR 

x 4 
a Drea, aa ota rae wie ee ee 
r sd ; s = - ' , " 
Sa reeery 4 ARAN Rt «3 
yy ~ “ if f £ 2 
re y 
anes 3 i Pe es 
) % : , \ 
) 3 e. * € 
‘ 9 3 S 
; Y ee * 
P a 
; : 
y ~ ‘ f 


BUCCINUM, Linn. &c. 

Gen. Cuar. Univalve; spiral; oval, or elongated ; — 
aperture nearly longitudinal, oblong, with a 
reflected sinus at the base of the columella. 
Columella plain, tumid. 

BUCCINUM elongatum. 
TAB. CX.—Fiig. |. 

Sree. Cuan. Shell ovate-elongated, transversely 
striated; whorls seven, rather convex, longi- 
tudinally undulated; outer lip obscurely cre- 
nulated within; mouth oval with a short re- 
curved sinus. 


Twice as long as wide, the aperture is rather less than 
half the length ; the undulations upon the lesser whorls are 
tolerably regular and straight; upon the last whorl they 
are less uniform and more curved; the inner lip is smooth, 
thicker at the base. 

Some doubts may be entertained, of this being a trifling 
variety of B. undatum of Linn. with greater regularity in 
the undulations, since we know how much the B. undatum 
varies in that respect: indeed it is with much uncertainty 
I give it here as another species. The length of the spire 
may perhaps distinguish it, wherefore I have called it 
elongatum. Mr. Herbert brought this shell from Walton le 
Soken Crag-pits, Essex, in 1810. I donot at present know of 
another specimen, but would recommend further search to 
be made after fossils so nearly related to recent shells. It is 


a curious circumstance, that not long since, my kind friend, 
the Rev. W. Bingley, presented me with a remarkably 
distorted recent specimen (perhaps I should call it a mon- 
strosity ) of Buccinum undatum with a very elongated spire, 
twice as long as the lower whorl, and with a single spiral 
rounded ridge embossed on the upper part of it. 


BUCCINUM rugosum. 
ANB, CX. Figs 

Srec. Cuar. Shell ovate-elongated, obtuse, trans- 
versely striated ; spire with twelve or fourteen 
angles ; whorls five, prominent; aperture ob- 

ovate, latter whorl rugged. 

— ee 

Avsnrvre about one-third the length of the shell, rather 
broadest at the lower part, the sinus in the beak scarcely 
recurved; the angles on the spire are large undulations, 
something like those on B. undatum, but more elevated 
and regular. The apex of the spire is truncated and 
thick, showing that the egg must have been rather large. 

- Received from Holywell, by favour of Mrs. Cobbold: 
specimens are found of various sizes, sometimes quite white, 
and often stained with ochre, especially in the hollow parts, 
prettily relieving the projections. Its general form bears a 
great resemblance to Murex rugosus, tab. 54, but it wants 
the canal in the beak. 


BUCCINUM reticosum. 
TAB. CX.—Fig. 2. 

Seec. Cuar. Shell oblong-ovate, acute, reticu- 
lated; whorls six, with the upper and lower 
‘parts rounded and sides flattish: outer lip 
toothed within. 
Ee 2 
"Tue reticulated surface of this shell very much resembles 
the impression of some coarse cloth; it is prominent, formed 
by strong transverse striz, crossing numerous longitudinal, 
rather acute undulations; the transverse strie approach 
in pairs, and are twice as numerous as the undulations: 
the mouth is an oval, pointed at the upper end, and with 
a recurved sinus at the lower. The greatest width of the 
shell is less than half the length, and equal to the length 
of the aperture: the outer lip is toothed and striated within ; 
inner lip plane, covering the columella. 
Mrs. Cobbold favoured me with this well-preserved spe- 
eimen from Holywell; it is an handsome-formed shell. 


BUCCINUM granulatum. 
TAB. CX.—Fig. 4. 

ao Er 

Spec. Cuar. Shell ovate, pointed, transyersely- 
striated, and with twenty longitudinal rows of 
tubercles; outer lip thickened, many-toothed 

er A Es ex 

Tus bas about four rather swelling whorls; between the 
striz are many little tubercles arranged in longitudinal 
ridges, sometimes larger on the upper edge of the whorl ; 
at the upper part of the inner lip is a tooth so placed oppo- 
site to one in the outer lip, as to form with it an apparent 
sinus, corresponding, but smaller, with that at the base of 
the columella. The aperture is obovate; edge of the outer 
lip rather straightened in the middle; the sinus at the base 
is a little curved. 

A pretty little shell, which varies from less than a quarter 
to nearly three quarters of an inch in length. I haye been 
favoured with very perfect specimens by my Ipswich 
friend. It closely resembles B. macula, but may be dis- 
tinguished, by the longitudinal rows of tubercles or granules. 


OSTREA gregarea. 
TAB. CXI.—Figs. 1 and 3. 

Spec. Cuar. Clustered, oblong, curved, plaited s 
plaits many, rugged, diverging from a longi- 
tudinal plait or sulcus; valves unequally con- 
vex, beaks produced and curved. 


"Tue lower valve is usually more concave than the other, 
and more or less carinated; the general form of the shell is 
very variable, nevertheless it constantly curves towards 
that side in which lies the muscular impression. The 
plaits are often branched near their commencement; they 
vary in length, several not reaching the central line; those 
in the hollow side are smallest. There are no vestiges of 
ears by the sides of the hinge, the pit of which has a 
central concavity in the lower valve, and a corresponding 
convexity iu the other, characters which distinguish this 
from the plaited Oyster found in the green Sand. The shell 
is rather slender, especially towards the edges. 

Immense masses of these shells haye been found near 
Devizes: they are of a greyish colour, and so much at- 
tached to each other, that it is difficult to distinguish the 
valves, and pairs nearly detached are rare, Mr, Sheffield 
has fine specimens, which he was so good as to lend me; 
for others I am indebted to Mrs. Gent. A greyish Lime- 
- stone often fills the insides, and sometimes partially covers 
the outsides. 


The large upper valve, of which two figures are given 
at fig. 3, is filled with a similar stone superficially stained 
with Iroa: it seems to correspond in some respects with 
Delamarck’s description of O. pectinata: it was sent me 
by the Rey. Mr. Steinhauer, from the upper Coral rag, at 
Westbrook, near Melksham, Wilts. 

All the species of Oysters are so variable in their contour, 
that it is difficult from description to determine them. 

OSTREA palmetta. 

TAB. CXI.—Fig. 2. 

Spec. Cuar. Ovate-roundish, obscurely one-eared, 
depressed, with a plaited margin; plaits diverg- 
ing from a longitudinal space ; beaks straight. 

Tus shell is but slightly curved, it is flatter and the plaits 
are few and more irregular than in O. gregarea, but it may 
‘prove to be a variety in a young state. 

Found in Marston field, near Oxford, by Mr. Baker, 
in a somewhat redder soil than the preceding. The upper 
valve easily separated, and allowed the inside of the other 
to be properly seen; there was but a small piece of earth 
in it. 


GRYPH/ALA, Delamerck. 

Gen. Cuar. A free (except when very young) 
unequal-valved, ineqvilateral bivalve; larger 
valve involutely curved, concave, lesser valve 
flaitish, beakless. Hinge a transversely striated 
pit, containing an imternal ligament, without 
teeth or crenatures. 

1 ESS re 

‘Vue lamellar structure of the Gryphites and their texture 
is much the same as that of the Ostracites, the hinge is 
also of the same nature; but the general form has afforded 
Delamarck a distinguishing character; how far this is 
sufficient, I leave others to judge. The gencral per- 
pendicularity of the hinge, the restriction on the right 
side, and the concayity of the smaller valve may assist. 
The length of most of the species is greater than the 
width ; the larger and lower valve is very concave, gra- 
dually curved into a large, more or less involute beak, 
along which runs one side of the pit holding the hinge 
cartilage: this side is consequently curved. The lesser 
valve is flat or convex within, and forms a kind of lid; 
the part to which the hinge cartilage is attached in this 
valve, is flat and perpendicular. The very young shells are 
nearly flat and attached to other bodies, of which they 
take the impression, through both valves; when they are 
full grown they lose their attachment, and the impression 
kemains upon the beak of one valve and upon that part of 


the other valye which met it when it was young, although now 
far removed. I have a specimen, upon the beak of which 
is the concave impression of a Catdium, and a convex 
impression upon the lid;* their correspondence appears at 
first difficult to understand, but they prove, that Gryphaz 
are no more free shells than Ostree. The otherwise independ- 
ent appearance of full grown shells, deceived the great and 
discerning Delamarck. The right side is often distinguished 
by an obscure lobe or sulcus. 

These shells seem generally more changed than most pe- 
trified Oysters, and the lamina are less tender and less 
divided. Fragments, however, are often with difficulty 
distinguished from those of Oysters. I do not quite know 
at present that [ have received Ostrea from the same stra- 
tum as the Gryphee, yet the former are abundant in many 
places. We conceive, that a knowledge of the different spe- 
cies of Gryphza will be of some importance in identifying 
formations, as they appear to occur in many places. I 
have them in the blue and white Lias ; in the great Oolite, 
particularly in the Clay which intersects its beds; in the 
Clunch Clay, the Kellaway Limestone, &c. and from the 
following places; Weston, near Bath; Purton Passage- 
ferry, in the mud; Frethern; Weymouth; Radipole ; 
Kellaway; Elveston, near Bedford; Norton-Disney, in 
Lincolnshire; Kettering, in Northamptonshire ; Birdbrook, 
in Essex; Strontian, in Argylehire; and Belfast. 

¥ T have a recent Oyster adhering to a Pecten, which has the impression 
of the ribs of the Pecten through both valves in a similar way, although a 
quarter of aa inch or more in depth : also some specimens of Anomia ephip- 
pium of Linneus, which are larger, (being always an adherent shell, and 
when on the common Oyster not appearing particular) but the ribs or 
strie being thus formed, gives them a sort of specific difference. I had 
this long since, through the generosity of Miss Pocock, gathered near 


GRYPH/A incurva. 
TAB. CXIl.—Figs. 1 and 2. 

a ar ee 

Serc. Cuar. Elongated, very involute, right side 
an obscure lobe, lesser valve oblong, externally 

Syn. Parkinson, Org. Rem. vol. lil. p. 209, t. XV. 
f.3. Walcot’s Bath Fossils, f. 34, p. 51 N. 


So great is the curve of this that the point of the beak is 
often concealed ; when visible it is generally sharp, seldom 
showing any impression, ‘The curvature is very regular, 
extending about one turn and an half. The surface is 
much laminated and rather rugose. The sides are straight, 
widening gently towards the round front. The lid is ob- 
long, widened towards the front and truncated at the 
hinge, where it is very thick. ‘The curvature of the beak 
is sometimes, but rarely, oblique at the apex. The upper 
specimen, fig. 1, is from the Lias near Frethern, in 
Gloucestershire, by favour of Thomas Meade, Esq. Its 
incurvation seems to hide the mark of attachment, which, 
however, will be found distinct in many of the genus. 
My kind friend, Thomas Walford, Esq. long since. 
favoured me with the curious gregareous specimen, fig. 2. 
from Birdbrook, Essex; it resembles some I haye from the 
Cornbrash at Chatley, &c. 


GRYPH/A obliquata. 

TAB. CXIL—Fig. 3. 

Spec. Cuar. Oblong, slightly involute, oblique; 
right side an obscure lebe; lesser valve irregu- 
larly ovate, externally concave. 

"Tur curvature of this shell rarely forms one whole circle, 
the beak turns to the right side; it is seldom sharp, but 
often truncated by the surface of adhesion to other bodies 
when it was young: it is a broader shell than the last, 
with rounded sides. 

This species does not seem to mix with the preceding, 
and by a little use will always be discriminated ; it either 
belongs to another rock formation or another part of the 
-same stratum; information relative to the places they are 
found at, and other circumstances, may ripen our know- 
ledge as to these particulars. 

Most of my specimens of this species are out of blue 
Lias; one of them has minute young ones attached to it, 
these are very flat, nearly circular, a quarter of an inch or 
less in length, without the least appearance of curvature, 
although they show more beak than young Oysters in 
general do. Part of the shell of this is replaced by Silex, 
with those concentric marks so frequent on the green Sand 
Fossils; it is in blue Lias, from St. Donat’s Castle, Gla- 
morganshire, by the Rey. W. Traherne. ) 

PLAGIOSTOMA punctata. 
TAB. CXIil.—Figs. 1 and 2. 

et —— 

Spec. Cuar. Depressed, obliquely obovate; with 
numerous diverging strie; anterior side long, 
straight ; ears nearly equal; diverging striz 
transversely marked with other very fine striz, 
or punctums. 

TR ee 

Wiauen young the margin is rather a greater segment of a 
circle than half, but older shells approach to an oval, the 
greatest length of which is placed obliquely parallel to 
the cavity on the anterior side, in which lies one of the 
ears; the diverging strie are fine, becoming obscure in 
the older shells; the transverse ones are hardly to be seen, 
except in the hollows of the others, where they appear as 
minute punctums; in the young shells they undulate, and 
seem like rows of minute punctums across each of the di- 
verging strie. The length and breadth, taken at right 
angles to each other, are nearly equal; the depth of one 
valve near the beak is about one sixth of the length. 
Having given some of the Plagiosiome in tab. 77 and 78, 
T now add a few more species of this tribe, which it may 
be proper to distinguish, and save some inconvenience to 
the inexperienced: different species having their respective 
localities, they will be better understood. The present 
species has a distinct character in the punctums, as pointed 
out by Miss E. Hill. This is from a quarry, at Pickeridge 
Hill, of hardish light and dark grey Limestone, called 
grey and blue Lias, provincially; it is a little foctid when 
scraped ; has faint impressions of shells much pressed, or 
flattened volutions of Ammonites, which being rather on 
the face of the stone, form a natural resemblance which 


the men call “‘ Clocks*.”” I have another specimen from 
St. Douat’s Casile, Glamorganshire, by favour of the Rev. 
W.. Traherne. Fig. 2 is a young specimen from the ruins 
of the keep of Cardiff Castle, which was built by Robert. 
Fitzhammon, A. D. 1110. Such were found also at Barry 
Island, in 1792, by Miss Hill. The stone is very like 
the other. 

PLAGIOSTOMA cardiiformis. 
TAB. CXIlL.—Fig. 3. 

Spec. Cuar. Gibbous, nearly circular, longitudi- 
nally furrowed, smooth; anterior side short, 
straight; wings equal. 

a ae ace cr ce 

So fine are the transverse stria in this shell, that they are 
nearly lost, except at the bottoms of the furrows, where 
they look like rows of very minute dots; this is a direct 
shell, with nearly equal sides, a little longer than wide ; the 
margin is toothed within: it is nearly related to P. spinosa, 
tab. 78, having in common with that, much of the general 
form of a Cardium. Depth of a single valve about one- 
third of the length. 

The great Oolite stratum contains also, larger and lighter 
or darker coloured specimens of this Plagiostoma, than the 
one I have figured. I am indebted to the Rev. H. Stein- 
hauer for several specimens from Petty France, in Glouces- 
tershire, — 

* In a quarry near is the cone-eoral Limestone mentioned in British 
Mineralogy, vol. 2, tab. 149, passing into striated Limestone or striated 
Spar, the local term for which is ‘‘ Charrow-bed.”’ Pickeridge Hill, 
mentioned before at pp. 177, 190, and 228, is in the parish of Corffe, four 
miles S. of Taunton, Somersetshire. 

TAB. CXIV.—Fig. 1. 

Srrc. Cuar. Gibbous, obliquely obovate, with 
many diverging sharp thread-like ribs, and 
very minute intervenisg transverse strie; an- 
terior side long, straight, very concave; ears 
nearly equal. 

es RR ee 

Tur ribs are sharp, irregularly waved, a little zigzag, 
about three or four times their thickness distant from each 
other; the beaks are rather prominent, the shell entire at 
the edge, thin and rigid to the touch, in consequence of the 
sharpness of the ribs; except the greater depth, its proportions 
are the same as in P. punctata. The striae upon the space 
between the ribs are too fine to be seen without a lense. 

I picked this up in one of the quarries at Shotover, other- 
wise I have only met with it once, when my friend, Mr. 
Sheffield, lent me a specimen marked Oxford. P. ovalis 
is like it, except in being a narrower formed shell, and 
from the strie of growth the present does not appear to 
have been narrower when younger. 

TAB. CXIV.—Fig. 3. 

Spec. Cuar. Rather gibbous, oblique, elongated, 
oval, with many small ribs and minute inter- 
vening transverse stria; anterior side concave, 
slightly recurved. 

een eee 

Very nearly resembling P. rigida, so that at first sight 
it might be taken for the young of it, but it is of a nar- 
rower oval shape, the ribs are rounded, and at a distance 
from each other only equal to once their thickness; the 
length exceeds the width, taken at right angles to it. 


My specimen is a very neat one from the Fuller’s-carth 
Rock at Small-Cossall, near Bath. The Rev. H. Stein~ 
hauer sent it to me in 1813. 


TAB. CXIV.— Fig. 2. 
Spec. Cuar. Rather gibbous, oblique, ovate, 
smooth, externally ribbed? with twenty-five 

internal sulci: -anterior side flattish; beaks 

eR wen 

Tre width of this shell is greater than the length; it iselegant 
in form, the anterior side not being so straight as in most 
Plagiostomx, and the beaks more elevated. 1 am not cer- 
tain, but suppose the margin to be toothed. This specimen 
from Kellaway was obligingly presented to me by Mr. 

PLAGIOSTOMA pectinoides. 
TAB. CXIV.—Fig. 4. 

SPKc. Cuar. Depressed, a little oblique, obovate, 
rather argular at the back ; beak pointed; sur- 
face with twentv or more carinated ribs, trans- 
versely striated; internally plane; margin 


Berween each of the ribs the space is very narrow, a 
little elevated and terminated at the margin by a tooth; the 
transverse striz are little else than lines of growth, but they 
are very numerous and sharp. Both sides are straight, the 
anterior one twice the length of the other; the ears are pro- 
minent and the general contour is that of a Pecten. 

From a clayey part of the soil at Pickeridge Hill, by 
favour of Miss Hill. 



VOLUTA, Linn. Delam. 

Gen. Cuar. Univalve, ovate, subventricose ; apex 
papillary; base emarginate; columella pli- 
cated, inferior plice largest and longest. 

VOLUTA luctator. 
TAB. CXV.--- Fig. 1. 

Spec. Cuar. Shell ovate-acute, crowned with tu- 
bercular spines, terminating longitudinal ribs, 
transversely striated or sulcated; whorls con- 
cave above, with a rugged edge; outer lip 
plain within; mouth oblong. 

Syn. Strombusluctator. Brand. Hant. 64. 
Voluta musicalis. Lamarck. Env. de Paris 26. 



Tue spire is a short cone with rather concave sides ; one 
row of short thick spines winds up it, diminishing rapidly 
towards the apex; from the bases of these spines proceed 
undulations or ribs which extend to the beak, and are 
crossed by numerous linear sulci or plaits, deepest about 
the lower part; the whole surface above and a small 
space below the spines is free from transverse strie, but 
the whole is longitudinally striated. The last whorl is 
about three times the length of the spire, angular above 
and but slightly ventricose; its upper edge is rugged with 
obscure tubercles, and sometimes an angular depression. 
Aperture oblong, lips nearly parallel and smooth: on the 
columella are three or four plaits. 
VOL. 11, XX! 


The shell here figured agrees with Brander’s from 
Barton above quoted. It has generally a coarser appear- 
ance than its congeners and is often larger, sometimes, 
perhaps, four or more inches long. The spire varies at 
the apex, being sometimes very blunt. Itis very doubtful 
whether Branders fig. 65, ought to have been retained 
under the same name by him. 

From Barton Cliff, I have also the fragment of a young 
one in the blue clay, from a well dug in Richmond Park 
some years ago. 

VOLUTA spinosa. 
TAB. CXV. Figs. 2 and 4, Var. & fig. 3. 

Spec. Cuar. Ovate-acute, ventricose, crowned 
with large spines extending into the longitu- 
dinal ribs, and a row of smaller spines near the 
upper edge of the whorl; whorls concave 
above, transversely striated below. Mouth 
ovate-elongated; outer lip plain within. 

Syn. Strombus luctator. Brand. Hant. fig. 65. 

Voluta spinosa. Lamarck. Env. de Paris 26. 

SS to the last in general form, but the last whorl 
is ventricose ; the edge of the whorls above the concave 
upper part is generally rectangular, with a row of sharp 
spines upon its angle. The transverse strie are often 
obscure over the upper half or more of the whorl. The 
mouth has a very obtuse angle at the upper part. Var. 
8 has a greater number of ribs and is less ventricose, fig. 3. 


This is fig. 65 of Brander, andresembles, or is perhaps 
the same as Lamarck’s V. spinosa, although in the French 
specimens I possess, the whorls are blended into each 
other, and the lesser row of spines is more irregular ; it 
is besides shorter in proportion to the width. The neatest, 
whitest, and best preserved specimens at Barton Cliffare 
generally of this species, but the French specimens are 
frequently more perfect still, having the yellow lines of 
colour preserved. The variety 6 is more distant from the 
French shell; my figure of it shows the plaited columella, 
characteristic of the Genus, but which is mostly hid by 
the position of the shells in Brander’s beautiful figures. 
Fig. 4. is intermediate in form between fig. 2 and 3. My 
specimens of this species, and also of V. luctator, have 
all the outer lip so broken as not to show whether it be 
striated within or not, I therefore take that character from 
Brander’s descriptions. 

VOLUTA ambigua var. monstrosa. 
TAB. CXV.--- Fig. 5. 

Spec. Car. Shell elongated ovate, acute, with 
longitudinal undulations and sharp transverse 
strie ; spire crowned with two rows of obsolete 
spines. Aperture acute at the top, expanded 
at the base; outer lip dentato-striated within. 

Syn. Volutaambigua. Brand. Hant. 69. 

A much narrower shell than either of the last; that 
part of the whorl above the undulations, or ribs, instead 
of being concave as in them, is rounded, and has a trans- 


verse ridge along its middie: the spines are very small, 
and only worthy the name on the lesser whorls. The 
variety here figured is curious, on account of a deep 
groove along the upper part of the whorls around the 
whole of the spire; the species may, however, be dis- 
tinguished, by the constantly rounding upper part of the — 
whorls, and the spines being less prominent. I am fa- 
voured with this curiosity from Barton Cliff, by the Rev. 
W. Bingley. 


NAUTILUS elegans. 

Spec. Cuar. Gibbose, umbilicate, with numerous 
linear, reflexed, radiating sulci. 

A sour two thirds as thick as wide ; the septa are rather 
numerous, gently waved ; the aperture is obtusely sagit- 
tate, with the posterior angles truncated ; umbilicus small, 
perhaps closed. 

This fine specimen was found in the chalk marle, at 
Ringmer, in Sussex, in 1814, by Mr. Mantell, and from 
the remains over the umbilicus it must have been as wide 
again. I have had numerous portions; one of the last 
chamber, which not having the siphuncle (in general per- 
ceptible) is often less intelligible than when broken so as 
to show its place, as in this specimen. I suspect that 
this species is not uncommon near Heytesbury and in some 
other parts of Wiltshire. I remember Mr. Cunnington had 
a fine specimen, which, I think, was the same species, but 
as it was purchased among other things by Dr. Parry that 
Gentleman only can decide it. It is often found very 
much distorted, in Sussex, and other places, baving the 
curved lines, its particular character, very much worn or 
lost, as in the greater part of this specimen. 

Mr. Cunnington’s, if I remember right, was very per- 
fect in this respect. 

Ree ae 

: ve . bead Lahee pe vee or 
Mee ak aan eeonbidauss ; . bate cere eats: ibe 
in ‘- abasic r whiz {> oa hi foe: wey aa aw oat i 
( i) Cony hy ga. te. lho hai Te. Bh, eal LAL ani node al iad 
ene: i bi AY, am Moat -or et arian i wie vihidunuss joa TOM ethene 
Wea eit deal ult Dh ono (aeihion animes bndborad Ty: singe = Bs 
eet ae Wet He ai) sisundgia odd tab eth) tou doider A tedtenad oo ae oa ‘ 
hie » pavlord ‘asi’ nod aldegiiloni esl nadie ei (aldingga 
Wi? al fekeQnge 75 APTT I My wet) and, ah cnoaly war wad he 
UTR ‘ Ye HOA xi aa of Tanlinad adh wwe. ocr sro HOR, “t mening 

ea inl ade ct uttapin! 10, iaehiniecnors: abl Wt mane iT 
: re beet 2 deus tee auld ay ne dowels ¥ eeboeed itr eomnisege sa8be 4 

| eesid seen AE gel ae wiih celta, vious bowen 2a en 
‘ete Diehy cade a A (ah oh De line ‘etcirol ero 
ee atti Cin anseky 4 acsableg: Hoagie gin oasis wei slsbwotaile dover o i 

TN, es Ar, PIO curate, wali iargsy wi Hand beet wa 
a ae Op eS Hie 44h deacon ey isthe od aye P ee 

wecheryuer af \: ie we HF Bee i } sl" 

Og i * 3 birth pn eo hy Bie get signee eit aioe, mn 

~ id f 
oath - : 
' : shale 
¥ 1 ie 
‘ 1 raat Pe 
PAR dott A 
ith > 
hati | Pb 
y, : 1 
ri ~ 
’ “i * 
y it, a = 
, NS 
ee ol 
(a \ 
bs wt 
. i 
wah * | y 
fy Ph 4b . 

AMONITES monile. 

Spec. Cuar. Sub-umbilicate, with tubercular radii; 
inner whorls exposed ; tubercles hollow, in the 
interior deep, externally obsolete on the mar- 

gin; external surface divergingly striated ; 
aperture transversely ovate. 


Ix the cast the radii are composed of tubercles gradually 
rising higher and becoming elongated towards the front, 
where the last one is bifid; this and several others are not 
to be seen on the outside, because the shell is so thick 
between them as to make the surface level. The inner sur- 
face is smooth; the front rather concave, finely striated 
externally. Aperture about one-third the diameter of the 
shell in length, and nearly twice as wide. Occasionally 
we see the siphuncle just within the front. 

I am favoured with this, and other curious productions 
of the green sand at Sandgate, near Folkstone, by a dis- 
cerning friend, whose zeal for scientific research could not 
resist attention, even to the often refused rejectamenta of 
former animation, preserved, Tam apt to think, as monu- 
ments of the most highly instructive nature, regarding the 
lapse of ages; while tuey often afford splendid examples 
of beauty increased by premature decay. 

This Ammonite in many ways baffies description, in 
being so various according to its state of preservation; 
the shell is thick originally, and rather laminated; its 
surface decaying may give much variety as to the protu- 
berances, while it occasionally becomes nacreous with an 
indescribable lustre; and often most so when the last 


remains of the inner shelly lamina exposes the cast, and 
when the moniliform appearance is most prominent, ele- 
gantly forming semicircles, like so many necklaces one 

above another, not unaptly reminding us of those in 
fashion about a century ago. 


TEREBRATULA plicatilis. 
TAB. CXVIII.---Fig. 1. 

Spec. Cuar. Gibbose, transversely obovate, finely 
and obtusely plaited ; middle elevated by twelve 
plaits; fifteen or more plaits on each side ; 
beak slightly projecting. 

Lee rather greater than the depth; width about one 
third greater than the length. The plaits continue to 
near the beak. The beaked valve is rather less gibbose 
than the other. 

L have this species most perfect from the upper Chalk 
at Northfleet near Gravesend, and also filled with flint 
from Margate: it is sometimes in such a state as to sepa- 
rate from the chalk, and show something of the interior 
construction, which is very desirable in this division of 
shells, as it is often very remarkable. The two upper 
figures are the upper and lower valve separated from the 
chalk, and showing the construction of the hinge. The 
next figure shows both valves closed together. 

TEREBRATULA octo-plicata. 
TAB. CXVIIL.---Fig. 2. 

Spec. Cuar. Gibbose, transversely obovate, ob- 
tusely plaited ; middle elevated by eight plaits ; 
twelve or fourteen plaits on each side; beak 

Tans differs from the last in the number of plaits, having 
at most but 9 at the sinus, itis also a rather longer shell, 


From the Chalk at Lewes; the two specimens here 
figured differ from each other in the number of plaits, and 
slightly in shape, but we do not know how to consider 
them as distinct species: this and the last are nearly 
related to T. concinna t. 83. fig. 6. 

TAB. CXVIII.---Fig. 3. 

Spec. Cuar. Circular, plaited; front cylindri- 
cal, margin acutely dentated, elevated in 
the middle with seven plaits; nine or ten 
plaits on each side ; valves compressed towards 

the beaks. 

ncn asia 

Tue front of this shell is placed at a right angle to the 
beaked valve, and is nearly of the same length: the re- 
maining parts of both valves are slightly convex: the 
form of the shell is therefore a cylinder cut off obliquely 
at one end, and rounded: the sinus at the front, although 
very deep, does not alter the evenness of the surface. 
This is from Mordiford, E.S.E. of Hereford, by favour 
of Lady Wilson: the structure is curiously different from 
any I have otherwise seen. I have the honour of naming 
it after her Ladyship, in commemoration of her zeal for 
research in this science. The specimens have some of the 
shell remaining; and are filled with a darkish limestone. 


Gen. Cuar. An equilateral unequalvalved bivalve : 
one valve with an angular sinus along an in- 
curved beak ; line of the hinge and back of the 
other valve straight, with two projections near 
the middle. 

A partial longitudinal septum with appendages 
attached to the hinge within. 

er LR 

Tis new Genus has the general contour of the plain 
Terebratulz figured in tab. 15; but attention to the parts 
about the hinge soon distinguishes it. The beak has no 
circular perforation as in them; but there is a large qua- 
drangular foramen, two sides of which are formed by two 
projections from the straight back of the flatter valve, and 
the other two run along to the point where they meet; on 
each side of it is a flat space extending from the line of 
the hinge, which is much longer than the foramen, to the 
apex: if the valves be separated the foramen is divided 
into two angular sinus’s, that in the beaked valve being 
much the largest. In the middle of the shell rises a thin 
longitudinal septum reaching from one valve to the other; 
the upper part of it arches over tothe hinge, the front of 
it is perpendicular, on each side are two shelf-like ap- 
pendages, one over the other, the upper ones united by 
slender processes to the hinge. I know of but one species, 
some variation in these particulars may be expected in 
others, but the general structure is sufficiently remarkable 
to warrant the establishment of the Genus.* Most 

* It is not unlikely that Martin’s Anomites glaber and others resembling 
it, the internal structure of which I kave not been able to examine, may 
belong to this Genus. It were much to be wished that some person would 
publish an account of the curious internal appendages of these shells, 


of the Terebratula ‘have lines along the beak, in the 
same direction as the sinus in this, but the back of the 
flatter valve is arched, never straight; this also wants the 
perforation in the beak. The resemblance of the arched 
septum to the bridge of a violin has suggested the generic 
name: to which valve this septum is attached I have not 
been able to ascertain, because I could not open the shell 
without breaking it. 

MAGAS pumilus. 

SPCC. cette Races’ 

4 Ree beaked valve is hemispherical, smooth, with a cir- 
cular edge, and small incurved beak; the other valve 
nearly flat, with a long transverse straight back. 

Mr. Richard Taylor, jun. favoured me with specimens 
of this singular shell, found in the Chalk near Maudes- 
ley, Norwich. The construction being new to me I was 
glad to exhibit it, especially as it appears to be newly 
discovered in the chalk; the specimens, he observes, are 
sometimes smaller than No. 1, but seldom larger than No.2, 
3, and 4. The extraordinary interior construction I have 
only been able to give an imperfect idea of, not having an 
opportunity to examine sufficient specimens. When mag- 
nified the shell is found to be curiously punctured in a 
minute quincunx order, which appears to depend on the 
construction of it, as in most of the tribe related to the 
Terebratula; it is generally most apparent within the 



Gen. Cuar. An equilateral unequalvalved bivalve ; 
valves beaked ; one valve with a large angular 
sinus along the inside of the beak; hinge 
transverse, long and straight. ‘T'wo spirally 
coiled linear appendages to the hinge nearly 
filling the shell. 

= RES 

Tae shells of this Genus are in general wider than long, 
with a large sinus or fold elevating the front; unarmed; 
many of them longitudinally furrowed. The sinus in 
the beak being met at its open end by the back of the 
lesser valve, forms a triangular foramen, with inflected 
edges.* The surface of the beak on each side of this fora- 
men is flatted and often widely extended, having numerous 
parallel longitudinal strie upon it, which gives it much the 
appearance of the outside of the hinge of Arca. I think this 
Genus will comprehend nearly all the shells, retained as 
Terebraiula by Lamarck, which have a triangular foramen 
and not a perforation at the apex of the beak as the cha- 
racter of that Genus requires. The several individuals in 
which I have discovered the spiral appendages, bear a con- 
siderable natural affinity to each other,+ from which circum- 
stance we may venture to place many analogous species 
in the Genus, although their interior has not been ex- 

* In some species I have traced these edges quite across the beak, forming 
septa, somewhat like those in the flatter valve of the Pentamerus, but 
confined to the beak. 

+ I gave a paper some time since to the Linnean Society, on the con- 
struction of this spiral tubular cartilage, which almost fills the sheils, 
and which I have seen full proof of in Derbyshire and Irish specimens ; 
and Mr. Brown has some curious specimens from Van Diemens land. 


posed. I conceive that all those in Martin’s division of 
Anomite d. d. (Martins’s outlines, &e. p- 243.) which he 
describes as having both valves convex, and a large tri- 
gonal foramen belong to this Genus, and also, perhaps, 
those of his next section with a small foramen, but we 
are not sufficiently acquainted with their internal struc- 
ture, to decide whether another Genus may not be neces- 
sary to render the divisions of the Linnean Genus Ano- 
mia quite natural. 

SPIRIFER cuspidatus. 

Spec. Cuar. Inversely pyramidal, longitudi- 
nally suleated; back flat, triangular, equila- 
teral; front elevated by a semicircular sinus, 
corresponding to a large longitudinal rising in 
the upper, and depression in the lower valve. 

Syn. Anomia cuspidata. W. Martin mm Trans. 
of Linn. Soc. IV. p. 45. t. 3. 
andt.4.fig.5. Petrif. Derb. 
t. 46. &A7. fig. 3. 4. and 5. 

Terebratula. Parkinson Org. Rem. III. 
234. t. 16. fig. 17. 

Drien valve nearly flat at the back, because its beak is 
but slightly incurved, or is straight, and sometimes even 
it is recurved; its depth is equal to its greatest width, 
which is occupied by the line of the hinge; the other 
valve is about one third the depth: the length is equal to 
about one half the width; the edge semicircular; there 


are about fifteen sulci on each side of the smooth central 
wave. A few lines of growth are marked on its surface, 
continuing over the back, which is finely striated longi- 
tudinally. The edges of the foramen are inflected. I 
have not discovered the spiral appendages to the hinge, 
but as they may be seen in Anomia trigonalis of Martin, 
t. 29. f. 36. it is probable they might be found in this, if 
the specimens were fortunately preserved. 

We were obliged to the late Mr. W. Martin for the first 
account of this species in 1798, and it had not been a se- 
cond time discovered by him or mentioned by any other 
author until very lately: he observes it is very rare at 
Castleton, and that its structure is truly remarkable, 
&c. As species of shells are said to determine the pre- 
cise age of the rock they are found in, by degrees we 
shall gain much useful instruction. 

A few years since my good friend, and friend to 
science, W. Danby, Esq. gave me a specimen, gathered 
below St. Vincent’s rock, near Bristol, and in May, 
1815, the Rev. J. M. Trahernes sent it to me as he ob- 
serves, “ from the Mountain Lime with Entrochi, near 
St. Hilary, Glamorganshire.” I have also a specimen 
from near Cork, by favour of Dr. T. Wood, in 1812. 
The two first have a few scaly remains of the shell; they 
are somewhat distorted, with incurved beaks; that from 
Bristol has some signs of Entrochi, in a dark reddish 
Limestone; in the other they are very distinct and abun- 
dant, the stone is darker with red stains. The specimen 
from Treland has less of the shell, and is remarkably dis- 
torted, see fig. 5; this distortion appears to imply some 
difference in the age, as if a further change had taken 
place, which effected a total reduction or more total loss 
of the shell, softening the whole mass, the shell previously 


interrupting and imposing the distinction and separation 
of the rocky matter sufficient to keep its form visible. 

The other four figures are from the same specimen as 
Martin figured: I cut a piece from it in search of the 
spiral cartilage, but it was obliterated: we may still hope 
to see it in perfection insome other. The Irish and Der- 
byshire specimens are in a much lighter coloured stone 
than the others. 


NAUTILUS Comptoni. 

Spec. Cuar. Lenticular, carinated; center co- 
vered; surface smooth ; keel obtuse ; aperture 

acutely triangular. 


"Tne last whorl covers all the others, and has about ten 
septa. ‘The centers are covered by a convex crust, more 
opaque than the rest of the shell. The mouth is formed 
of two arched lips. Siphuncle probably in the keel. 
Diameter less than one line. 

This is, perhaps, so small a Nautilus, that it is likely 
to be overlooked in England. I received it from Lord 
Compton (in the same stone with the Turrilites costata, 
tab. 36.) who found it at Earl-stoke, seven miles N. E. 
of Warminster, Wilts. I beg to record his Lordship’s 
penetration, as an honour to himself, and as likely to 
prove ultimately useful to ‘society ; for, as the language 
of a country (says Lord Moira) may be enriched by a 
knowledge of other languages, so a knowledge even of 
the minutia of Natural History must facilitate other 
branches of science in any country, for every atom has 
its use to infinity. ‘The minuteness and rarity of this 
specimen made me rather anxious to give it publicity, 
lest it should be lost. 

It agrees in some respects with the genus Patrocles of 
Montfort, but from the imperfection of some of his figures 
T do not know how to confide in this, and I think it is a 
fault to be hasty in making Genera, before we are ac- 
quainted with individuals. Now every observer would 

VOL. 1... #90. XMS. 


consider this as somewhat belonging to the Nautilus, [ 
therefore retain it in that genus at present, rather than 
go farther, beyond the limits of general knowledge. 
Nautilus calcar of Fichtel is quoted by Montfort, but it 
appears certainly to differ from either. _ I am sorry not to 
be able to find the siphuncle, but I suspect it is at the 
outer extremity. In all my specimens, which is seldomer 
the case in Nautili than in Ammonites, it was obscure: 
one had a little break where I expected it, but I could 
not say it was there :---it must therefore be left for further 


NAUTILUS simplex. 

Spec. Cuar. Depressed, spheroidal, umbilicate, 
plain ; mouth lunate, with the angles truncate, 
embracing the preceding whorl; siphuncle 
nearest to the inner edge of the septum. 

nes WA ee 

Tourckxess about four-fifths of the greatest diameter, 
septa numerous, rather flatter than in Nautilus imperialis, 
tab. 1. and narrow in the middle. 

This is found rather abundantly in the vicinity of 
Boreham, one mile E.S. E. of Warminster, but often so 
loosely aggregated in parts as to fall to pieces as a mere 
marley green sand, as it is commonly called ; at the same 
time some parts are become more or less solid, and com- 
pact flinty hornstone, or partially filled with carbonate of 
lime in crystals. Under these circumstances it is seldom 
that a good specimen is found, and they vary in shape 
and size, being compressed or rounded, and from an inch 
or two to a foot or more in length. The present spe- 
cimen, from Miss Benett, shewing the place of the 
siphuncle, helps to distinguish it from species which 
might otherwise be confounded with it. It bears a great 
resemblance to Nautilus imperialis, (tab. 1.) but is, how- 
ever, generally rounder in the.curyature, and narrower. 
In one massy specimen I found what is deemed an 
Alcyonite imbedded ; it is a sort of organic remains, that 
has repeatedly forked branches, and bearing many clubbed, 
pearshaped, nearly cuplike or folded, apparent termina- 


tions or heads,* some nearly the shape and size of a 
moderate lemon; the branches about half an inch thick, 
with five or more calcedonic tubes filled up with flint, 
&ec. the rest being chiefly horny looking flint, which with 
some difficulty separates from the green sandy and flinty 
marly mixture. Pectens, &c. are frequently included 
with them. 

The green sand in which this is found owes its name to 
particles of Chlorite, or earthy Talc, coloured green 
by tron mixed with it,t a colour seldom found in Mica, 
and never imparted by it to the sandstone, of which it 
may form a part. 


* Since my paper on this was read to the Linnean Society, more spe- 
cimens have been found in the Warminster green sand, by Miss Benett, 
indicating many swelling terminations or heads, hydra-like. 

t+ The Fullers’ Earth, near Woburn, is often accompanied by a bright 
green sand, whose colour is occasioned by Iron, it is said. 


NAUTILUS truncatus. 

Spec. Cuar. Thick, flatted, plain, umbilicate ; 
back flat, mouth elongated, four-angled : si- 
phuncle nearest to the inner margin of the 

‘Syn. Lister, 1048. 

"TP atcxness rather less than half the diameter; the sides 
are rather conical and even. Mouth above half the dia- 
meter of the shell, long, narrowest towards the back, 
siphuncle oval. Septa very numerous, mot recurved 
towards the umbilicus. 

A fine specimen of this species is figured by Lister, 
measuring ten inches in the longest diameter ; no doubt, 
when perfect it is sometimes much larger: mine is eight 
inches, I figure a part of it, as sufficient; the remainder 
is a broken continuation of it. Ihave never seen the last 
chamber. This is composed of a mixture of dark lias lime- 
stone and pyrites, found at Keynsham, S. E. of Bristol. 
It is also said to be found in the blue lias of Bath, &e. 
Lister does not say where his specimen was found ; his 
figure shows about three whorls, mine did not expose 
them ; possibly when the shell is removed the whorls may 
be uncovered. Mine has fragments of the shell of consi- 
derable thickness about it, indicating that it was smooth 
when perfect. 

0 Si 

an tae ae a manee. AP . 
| ee “ 
Pr athe siat 
, ory Ph SEIS > 

Hi i ; at ; Aa ryt ; i 

yy oe 


NAUTILUS obesus. 


Spec. Cuar. Gibbose, umbilicate, plain; back 
broad, flat; mouth large, squarish ; septa 
very numerous, not recurved ; siphuncle nearly 

Tarcxnzss about three-fourths the diameter. The 
mouth is large, being two-thirds the diameter long. The 
septa are very numerous ; their angles not being recurved 
gives a very open form to the umbilicus. The siphuncle 
is transversely oval. 

My kind and discerning friend Mr. Strangewayes sent 
me this from the coarse or rather ferruginous limestone, at 
Norton-under-ham ; it is often of a large size (a foot or 
more long) and clumsy make, but seldom perfect. It is 
readily distinguished at first sight by the flat broad back, 
and afterwards by the siphuncle being nearly in the 
middle of the septa, inclining inwards: both these cha- 
racters being taken together will distinguish many species, 
yet I expect more may be occasionally necessary. The 
shell must have been very thin and without peculiar 
markings, as there is no sign betwixt the curve and the 
mouth that betrays any. ‘The divisions are sometimes 
irregular, but that happens in the most perfect in many 
other species. 

eitiiam, sahil 7 nag 

gua : AK ore i dev “hs oa , 

nada) Ds 
+i ay j .. PEO 4 
rea enh a evit de ph ined 



Gt ee Shiv ‘fy vier 4 
iy aeons! tt 

Nee pea iD ‘e% by Ma ye 
ey ‘ ey 
; ‘ty i ie ibis red pt Jy 2 
: f iat 
jamsdwertp,! ay Saher lake! ret sot a went aa 
oh \ py a ey ae 
.* we oo 



ae a 

NAUTILUS intermedius. 

Spec. Cuan. Gibbose, umbilicate, concentrically 
striated ; back broad, flattened; mouth squar- 
ish ; srphuncle nearest the external edge. 

N oT so thick as N. obesus, with flatter sides and a nar- 
rower back; the septa are also less numerous; it ap- 
proaches N. truncatus, (tab. 123.) but is thicker, with a 
broader back; its surface being finely striated, distin- 
guishes it from both. 

From Keynsham.—This and the last might easily be 
confounded with each other; the siphuncle, however, in 
this, is nearest to the outer part of the shell. From the 
inner part of the front of a whorl that became exposed in 
separating, we find it was longitudinally and finely 
striated. Had not this been discovered, we must have 
depended more upon the siphuncle, which is round and 
not transversely oval. The stone in which this and the 
last figured specimen were imbedded, does not seem to 
differ much. The shells of either appear to have been 
very thin, and are so worn that the numerous and thin 
septa are seen conspicuously exposed. 

How admirable is it that Nature allows us so much 
distinction in specimens that have undergone such vicis- 
situdes, while we are often puzzled with very perfect 
recent ones! It is truly useful, as we the better discri- 
minate their places in the rock and system; and thus 
will the recent species become more easy to our exercised 


Thomas Walford, Esq. has nearly similar remains of 
shells on his estate at Birdbrook, N. W. of Castle Hed- 
ingham, Essex, of which he kindly sent me a specimen, 
in the light chalky marl, perhaps alluvial on the London 
clay; but I expect, from what I have, that the siphuncle 
is placed about one-third of the length of the mouth from 
the last whorl ; and although the flatness and width of the 
shell nearly corresponds, it is not so angular as in the 
Keynsham specimen. It was part of a septarium, which 
included the shell, indiscriminately, as a mass of earth. 
Such light earthy septaria are found under gravel, near 
the Marquis of Cornwallis’s, Culford Hall, near Bury 
St. Edmund’s, Suffolk. 

AMONITES giganteus. 


Simplegades. Montfort, p. 92. 

Spec. Cuar. Depressed, with many radiating, 
sometimes furcate undulations; inner whorls 
exposed ; sides straitish ; mouth obovate. 

Var. g. Mouth nearly circular, sides rounded. 

Syn. ——— Lister, pl. 1046. 

Tear are about 5 distinct whorls in most specimens, 
the interior ones being almost wholly exposed; the septa 
are rather numerous with their margins much sinuated. 
Thickness of var. a equal to about one fourth of the 
diameter, and rather more in var. £. 

_ Tt was at a loss how to represent this, which in mag- 
nitude and beauty is preserved so many ways for our 
wonder, instruction, and gratification. It is sometimes 
filled with small grained Limestone: sometimes the 
chambers are lined or filled with crystallized Carbonate of 
Lime; the crystals being commonly equiaxed or inverse 
rhombs (see British Mineralogy tab. 12.) Such are found, 
I believe, near Keynsham, and cut and polished, thus 
shewing the chambers within, and -the sinuated margins 
of the septa, at various depths externally; they are often 
cut so thin as to be transparent in parts; my late es- 
teemed friend, Dr. Lettsom, presented me with some 
specimens of this kind, which surpass description. The 
flint that occurs in the Limestone where these shells 
abound, occasionally envelopes some of them, the cham- 


bers are then generally filled or lined with quartz crystals. 

have several large fragments of nearly such from the 
neighbourhood of Fonthill, Wilts. A specimen from the 
last place in fiint I have figured in British Mineralogy, 
tab. 310.; it is composed of calcedony, which has 
formed a thin coat over the shell, septa and all, 
when the shell decaying has left the calcedony with its 
exact form. It has been said, somewhere, that Mr. 
Beckford, of Fonthill, was in possession of one, holding 
Feldspar; upon enquiry I have every reason to think 
this to have been a mistake; if such a one was at Fonthill, 
Mr. Beckford was so kind as to order it to be sent to me, 
but no such thing existed. The half of one, how- 
ever, the smaller chambers of which are lined with 
inverse rhombs of Carbonate of Lime supporting short 
prismatic crystals of the same substance, was added 
to my collection; it is from Chicksgrove quarry, one 
mile and a quarter K. N. E. of Tisbury, near Hin- 
don, Wilts, and measures two feet three inches in 
diameter. When I was at that place some years ago, 
the quarry men told me, that they had broken within 
that week, one as large as the hinder wheel of a coach} 
Lister says his was two feet, and there isin the museum 
at Paris, ashell of the same genus four feet in diameter; 
knowing this, Montfort seems ready to give credit to the 
assertion, that they are sometimes eight feet. The 
Chicksgreve cone just mentioned is the largest I have met 
with; itis the var. « and in a compact sandy Limestone ; 
there is part of a curiously formed crab’s claw in the stone, 
and a number of plain serpule about the mouth of the 
shell; there is a specimen of this variety «, brought from 
Purbeck Isle, as itis called, in Dorsetshire, measuring 
21 inches in diameter, to be seen in the basement, in front 
of one of the warehouses in the London Docks.’ 


Of the variety 6 1 have several calcareous specimeus 
from the Chicksgrove quarry, one of them lined with 
equiaxed rhombs of calcareous spar, for which I am in- 
debted to A. B. Lambert, Esq. of botanical celebrity; in 
the stone imbedding this shell there was a large conge- 
ries of Serpule, of a different species from those in the 
other specimen var. z, an Oyster shell, impregnated with 
Silex, Trigoniz, various small Shelis, smal! Vertebra, 
and imperfect Crab’s claws. Most of the siliceous speci- 
mens are also of the variety @. FT am indebted to Mr. 
Salmon for some masses of Flint, having hollows almost 
filled with calcedony, which appear to be nearly oblite- 
rated chambers of sucha shell, of a very large size: they 
were found in Marlborough Downs. 

Some years ago I saw on the shore at the foot of the 
Ciifis, between Dover and Walmer castle, an impression 
in Chalk, of an Ammonite, which measured about three 
feet in diameter. 

Chicksgrove quarry produces many Ammonites, they 
occur in a Limestene, into the composition of which a 
small quantity of fine sand enters, and as there are dis- 
persed through it many portions of crystallized Carbo- 
nate of Lime, that break into lamine, it has, I am told, 
been erreneously called sandstone with mica: the quarry 
men term the particular bed which produced my largest 
specimen var. «, the spangle bed, (the specimen var. 6 ap- 
pears to be from the same bed) from the appearance of 
these crystals. Miss Benett who has paid indefatigable 
attention to Chicksgrove quarry, and indeed to Geology 
in general, has kindly remitted to me the following ac- 
count of the section, with the nomenclature of the peo- 
ple who work the stene, and aseries of specimens which 

enable me to mark the mineralogical differences of the 


A corrected Section of Chicksgrove Quarry, S. of the 
Village and of the River, in the Parish of Tisbury, 
in Wiltshire. 

1. Top of the Quarry.—Rubble, fourteen feet—No 
shells in this bed. (Impure chalk.) 

2. Stone not good, two feet—The lower part of this 
bed contains the same shells as the chalk below it. 

3. Chalk, two feet.—Trigonias three species, Pectens 
like those of Thame, Oxfordshire, Ostrea several species, 
a thick equivalve, bivalve which is common in the rubble 
beds of freestone, a small bivalve, perhaps Unio, two 
other small bivalves and a Trochus like those of the flinty 
chalk. (Hard chalk.) 

4, lint, four inches, (approaching chert.) 

5. Chalk, eleven feet—A rubbly Chalk without shells. 
(Hard chalk.) 

6. Spangle bed, five feet six inches—Contains Am- 
monites, Oysters, and various other shells changed into 
spar. (Limestone, containing some white, but no green 

7. Walling Rag, two feet six inches—Fragments of 
shells changed into spar. (Like No. 6, only coarser and 

8. Devil’s bed, two feet—Fragments of shell changed 
into spar, smaller shells than the Walling Rag. (Like 
No. 6.) 

9. Great Rag, three feet—No shells, or only small 
fragments. (A compact sandy Limestone, with minute 
grains of green sand.) 

10. Brown bed, three feet—Contains Ammonites. 
(Less compact than the last, with more green sand, some 
parts of a loose texture.) 


11. Trough stone, three feet four inches.—Trigonias, 
the shell changed into spar, and Ammonites. (Similar to 
some parts of the last.) 

12. White bed, two feet eight inches —Contains Am- 
monites. (Between 10 and 13.) 

13. Hard bed, three feet six inches——Trigonias, the 
shell changed into spar and Ammonites. This bed is 
very like No. 11. (Rather less green sand than No. 10.) 

14. Fretting stone, two feet—A soft stone and no 
shells. (A loose sandy Limestone with green sand.) 

15. Under bed, two feet—Fragments of shells 
changed into spar. (More compact and finer grained 
than the last, and holding less green sand.) 

16. Under bed, two feet six inches.—C ontains Trigo- 
nias, the cast of the outside of the shell a soft stone. 
(Like the last, except that it contains no spar.) 

The whole depth of Chicksgrove Quarry to the bottom 
of the stone is 61 feet 4 inches, measured by John Moun- 
tague, foreman of the quarry. 

The scales of fish, erroneously supposed to have been 
found in this quarry, were froma tile-stone quarry on Lady- 
Down, in the parish of Tisbury, and about one mile 
N. W. from Chicksgrove Quarry. 

The above are the names by which the different beds 
are known by the people who work the quarry. 

Most of the stone contains calcareous spar, in the place 
of the fragments of shells dispersed through it, but No. 
14 and 16 are without it; the Spangle bed contains most. 

The rare stratum called by Geologists “ White Free- 
stone” and here called chalk, but from which it differs in 
its sitnation, occurs also at Brill, in Buckinghamshire, 
and at Upway, in Dorsetshire. 

‘ iy y iy i, me pe ~ it if emialia’ <a 8 oe chk i 
raf ie cee + ome ito: 1 oh ie auth, Ta: 8 
| aks BRR unape See abide sat 
‘ sa i. et ae Rane ee = ae 
: at - | “ont Sodsio# srwee cenuebi ca 


ba cs 

ee 0's ade rages Eh | a fee 
: yi Jee an Nir ees ae Es oF 7 

7 yp a ‘ 
ig a Si ies es wa wit 

7) ian <) 

; qhalat t3hg in ibe 
ea 4 

\; eae Bi a 

Fi et OTS: 

mart ; “4 f Bi. 

“ q ; - 

itty ahs feed , 


3 P 
u na So uiiarde fo. & ins 

olyerdn ie By sike, (a¥ ale ad 

ay of ats a wes hs “iS Me eae indie BP 
Pata 3s cb bist" ts) Gare Fd ike ala 

ay ahs oe nivieeale abe * 
ne SS coe ited he er pornos. 
ee Shea t , : ‘s es ’ ar HF aN, 

. ‘ ‘ae glee i 
ae , 1 ek 4 


CERITHIUM, Bruguiere. 

Gen. Cuar. Shell univalve, spiral, terminated at 
the base by a short truncated or recurved canal : 
aperture oblique, with an obscure canal at the 
upper part. 


Dus shells of this Genus are generally seven times the 
width of the aperture long, and beautifully ornamented 
by tubercles, transverse strie or carine and longitudinal 
coste, variously combined and proportioned. It seems 
to be a very natural Genus, containing many species ; 
but the canal at the upper part of the mouth is often very 
obscure, and sometimes, even entirely wanting. The 
size of individuals varies from a quarter of an inch 
to two feet in length, limits which are exceeded by 
very few Genera of spiral shells. ‘This Genus has 
been divided into three by Montfort; how far this di- 
vision may be found necessary by those who are con- 
versant with foreign shells, I will not pretend to say, 
but at present I feel satisfied with Lamarck’s distinctions 
and would wish to go no further. 

CERITHIUM pyramidalis. 
TAB. CXXVIL—Fig. 1. 

Spec. Cuar. Pyramidal, with six projecting tu- 
berculated angles; whorls 10 or II, trans- 
versely tri-carinated, carine tuberculated ; six 
compressed tubercles on the upper part of the 
last whorl; outer lip expanded. 

VOL. 11. 49/6, XX] 


Syn. Cerithium hexagonum. Lamarck Env. de 
Paris, p. 79. 
Murex hexagonus. Chemnitz Conch. X.p. 
261. ¢. 162. f. 1554. 
Murex angulatus. Brander, p. 24. f. 46. 

Aurnoven the general form of this is pyramidal with six 
sides the spaces between the angles or rather coste are 
not flat; the coste are slightly arched, obtuse, with 
about three tubercles on each, corresponding to the 
number of obtuse carine that cross them, and which have 
three or four tubercles between each costa: the last 
whorl shows seven or eight carine, and wants the coste 
on its lower part, while they are enlarged on the upper 
part by an equal number of prominent transversely 
flattened tubercles: the whole surface is minutely and 
transversely striated. Brander describes seven angles 
to his Murex angulatus, but I conceive there is no doubt 
of this being the same species, the number of angles 
constituting it only a variety. I have two specimens, 
both with six angles. 

From Hordle or Barton Cliffs, by favour of my kind 
friend, the Rev. Mr. Iremonger; not having the mouth 
quite perfect in the authentic specimen, a dotted line 
is added from a specimen the same in every res- 
pect, except that its ornaments are sharper, and that 
it has so recent an appearance, that I cannot answer for 
its being a fossilized remains, nor do I know where it 
was found, although shells, almost as recent in appear- 
ance, are found at Hordle Cliff. 

Lamarck’s Cerithium hexagonum comes the nearest 
in description to this shell, but is distinguished by the 
flatness of its sides and spinose tubercles. See Env. de 
Paris, p. 79. 


CERITHIUM geminatum. 
TAB. CXXVII.—Fig. 2. 

Spec. Cuar. Conical, elongated, smooth, with 
seven or eight longitudinally disposed pairs of 
acute tubercles on each whorl; whorls about 

twelve; lip even. 

Tuere are two obsolete transverse carine, extending 
from one pair of tubercles to the next; the upper tubercle 
of each pair is the largest, particularly upon the last 
whorl, where it is often bifid; on this whorl are also two 
other rows of small tubercles, visible; the aperture is 
nearly round, with a very slightly recurved beak. 

I believe this is a rare shell, even at Barton Cliff, from 
whence I am favoured with it by the Rev. Mr. Iremonger, 
who has generously allowed me to take many of the most 
rare and perfect of his specimens, for public information 
—this is the best specimen Ihave seen ; but I possess a 
smaller one from the same place, by favour of the Rey. 

W. Bingley. 

CERITHIUM funatum. 

Spec Cuar. Conical, elongated, with two obtuse 
crenulated transverse ridges upon each whorl ; 
upper part of each whorl thickened and tuber- 
culated ; mouth squarish ; base smooth. 

Tur tubercles upon the upper part of the whorl form, 
in some specimens, a kind of corona: the last whorl 
only differs from the others, in exposing two more 
transverse ridges ; the mouth has a small canal at the 
upper edge; the beak is rather short. Whorls ten or 

This elegant species seems to have been common at 
Hordle Cliff, when Mr. Iremonger procured it ; the indi- 
viduals are sometimes neat and white, with a mixture of 
sand and marle, or stained with ochre; sometimes they 
are less sharply preserved with a grey or greenish sandy 
mixture about them, and occasionally the ornament and 
strie are obliterated to so plain an appearance, that the 
species can scarcely be recognized without very careful 
comparison, the ridges, &c. varying more or less accord- 
ing as they are worn, but commonly having the most 
distinct appearance about half way from the apex. I 
have named it from the resemblance of the costa to small 

Fig. 1 from a bed of blue clay on the indurated 
marle, Castle-hill, near Newhaven, Sussex, by favour of G. 
A. Mantell, Esa. collected in 1802 or 1803. Fig. 2 
found at Hordle Cliff some years since, and presented to 
me by the Rev. Mr. [remonger. 


VOLUTA Lamberti. 

Spec. Cuar. Fuciform, short, smooth; base elon- 
gated, obscurely truncated; columella with 3 
or + plaits; aperture acute above; outer lip 
sharp, not expanded towards the base. 

Syn. Voluta of Harwich. Park. Org. Rem. V. 

FEE p? 267 tae FNS. 

A Cast. Hist. Lap. Fig. p. 112. t. 33. f. 3. 
App. to Dale’s Hist. of Harwich, 

pl. 10. f. 14. p. 289. (See Park- 


Tur whole surface is smooth ; the aperture occupies 
about two-thirds of the length of the shell, it is nearly of 
the same form with it, but is acute at the upper part, 
whereas the apex of the shell is subglobose ; the width 
is considerably less than one-third of the length; the 
outer lip has a slight sinus where it approaches the spire 
and is rather expanded in the middle: the base is 
equally elongated with the spire, and so slightly and 
obliquely truncated, as to render the beak but obscurely 
emarginate. ‘The lowest plait of the columella is some- 
times confounded with the base of it, when there remain 
only three plaits. 

I retain this as a Voluta,* although the base is, 
pethaps, scarcely emarginate, and is more taper than 
usual. It is rather curious that about five specimens 
have been found in a recent state, much resembling this, 
which are in the hands of different cognoscenti; Mr. 


* Jt has some affinity to Murex tulipa, Zinn. or Fasciolaria, Lam. 


Hall is said to have two, Mr. Jennings one, of which I 
have seen drawings, some of which indicate an emargi- 
nate base: the shape in other respects is so near that it 
might be considered the same: the colour also corres- 
ponds ; the recent one, is, however, finely marked with 
zigzag or lightening-like stripes, of the colour of 
the warmest or darkest line of our figure, and is al- 
together to be admired, so that it has got the appella- 
tion elegans. It is said to be a native of the Fejee 
islands in the south seas. I have seen a recent specimen 
approaching it, with a broad expansion of the outer lip, 
and emarginate base, without coloured markings. 

Fig. 1 is from a young shell by favour of Mrs. Cobbold, 
from Crag-marle at Holywell; fig. 2 from the Rev. Mr. 
Lambert’s specimen; it is, perhaps, the most perfect 
known, and was found in the Cliff at Bawdsey, Suffolk, 
where the Crag lies upon blue Clay. Fig. 3 is the outline 
of a cast, by favour of that gentleman, from Aldborough, 
Suffolk, full twenty miles distant from Bawdsey where 
the other specimen came from. 

I have the pleasure of naming it after the Rev. Mr. 
Lambert, that his ardour and zeal may be remembered 
with gratitude. 

Mr. Parkinson’s figure seems to have been taken from 
a good specimen, but differs from ours in the contour of 
the adherent upper part of the lip. 

Having been favoured with a sketch of the general 
nature of that part of Suffolk where the Crag-marle, more 
or less supplies these, and numerous other vestiges of 
beings, formerly organized; I am glad to lay the instruct- 
ive detail before the public :—“ It is that part of the 
county of Suffolk which, from the comparative lightness 
of the soil, is expressly called the Sands—it abounds 
so much in that species of fossil shell, called Crag shells, 


that it is much more difficult to say where they are not, 
than where they are to be found. The Crag at Bawdsey 
Cliff, near the mouth of the Deben or Delen River, is parti- 
cularly deserving attention, not only for the variety of 
shells which it produces, but because you may discover 
in various parts of it, particularly the southern extremity, 
the base on which it rests, and which appears to be blue 
Clay, and such is the Anchorage ground in Hollesley 
Bay, N. E. of it, visible at ebb tide. On elevated ground, 
to the west of Melton, N. N. E. of Woodbridge, is a Crag 
pit, just on the confines of the deep soil of High Suffolk, 
its produce mixes with the fossils of the blue Clay. At 
Shottisham, S. E. of Woodbridge, 1 found the Murex 
despectus ; near Brightwell and Foxall, 8S. W. of Wood- 
bridge, the reverse Murices and Chame abound ; near 
Woodbridge is a vein of imperfect specimens of Venus 
Islandica, but [never could extract an entire specimen. At 
Sudbourn, N. of Orford, the Crag is of a much paler 
colour, and of so concrete a texture, that some walls at 
Orford are built with it; and in sinking wells through 
it at Sudbourn no other support is wanted for the sides. 
‘The Crag near Aldborough is very loose.* I believe that 
the soil of the country between the rivers Orwell and 
Stour, S. and 8S. W. of Ipswich, is similar to that of the 
Sands, and equally abundant in Crag; but I have 
never examined any part of it except the neighbourhood 
of Wherstead and Belstead. To the westward of Ipswich, 
Crag was formerly seen on high ground, which is now 
concealed by plantations ; and about half way down, be- 

* It consists of fragments mixed with entire shells of Pectens and some 
others, corals, &c. adhering together around the spaces formerly occu- 
pied by otber shells, such as Voluta Lamberti, Venus, Islandica, &e. 
that have left behind them here nothing but their impressions, while in 
ether places they are found entire. 


tween this and the river, a tooth and several bones of 
an elephant were found in sinking a well, ten or twelve 
years ago. Near Harwich, S. 8. E. is the Cliff originally 
quoted by Lister as the habitat of the inverted Murex, 
and copied from him by succeeding Conchologists, 
«“ Prope Harwich.” 

AMMONITES Bucklandi. 

Spec. Cuan. Depressed, inner volutions exposed, 
with large obtuse radii; back carinated, anda 
furrow on each side of the keel; aperture 

—_—_—_ a ——— 

Voxvrtons about five, their sides wholly exposed, the 
back flattish, with two concentric grooves, and an inter- 
mediate keel; the radii are swelled towards the back, 
over which they are suddenly reflected, and gradually 
lost, as in several other carinated Ammonites; the keel 
is obtuse and entire. 

Found in the Blue Lias of Bath and the neighbour- 
hood, measuring from a foot to 21 inches or more in 
diameter, and rather remarkable for having frequently 
lost the inner whorls ; which circumstance, by a sort of 
friendly pun, has given rise to the name given it, in 
honour of a meritorious and enlightened Geologist, the 
Rev. W. Buckland, who having found a large specimen, 
was induced by his ardour to carry it himself, although 
of considerable weight, and being on horseback it was 
not the less inconvenient ; but the inner whorls being 
gone so as to allow his head and shoulder to pass 
through, he placed it as a French horn is sometimes 
carried, above one shoulder and under the other, and 
thus rode with his friendly companions, who amused him 
by dubbing him an Ammon Knight ; and thus the speci- 
men was secured, by diverting the tedious toil otherwise 
hardly to be borne. May his zeal for information always 
be rewarded: may his abilities continue to meet that 
attention they have hitherto so deservedly gained: may 
his horn be exalted with honour. 

Mr. B. lately found Ammonites striatus, tab. 53. f. 1. 
in the transition slate of Filliagh, near South-molton, 

dios f/ 4 AV ETb. 


AMMONITES Conybeari. 


Spec. Cuar. Depressed, carinated, volutions many, 
exposed, with obtuse radii; keel prominent, 
entire ; back flattish, angular ; aperture oblong. 

V orvrions 8 or 9 ; the radii even, or rather most ele- 
vated in the middle of each volution, and lost before 
they quite reach the angles of the back: keel large and 
prominent, with a slightly concave space on each side 
of it. 

This species is rather remarkably variable in size, 
from 2 to 18 inches and more in width, and always hav- 
ing about 8 whorls, generally continuing very perfect to 
asmall center. It is from near Bath. The composition 
it is preserved in varies much, like that of most of the 
shells of the Lias strata in general, being Carbonate of 
Lime more or less crystallized, Lron Pyrites, or mere casts 
of earthy Limestone, or a mixture of the whole, and 
shewing the foliated divisions, or nearly plain. 

I feel a pleasure in distinguishing this by the name it 
bears, after two able Geologists, the learned friends and 
companions of the Rev. Mr. Buckland, whose zeal de- 
serves to be remembered by posterity. This and the 
following species are generally companions in the same 

stratum, and are occasionally impressed with each 
others type. 


AMMONITES Greenoughi. 

Spec. Cuan. Depressed, volutions two-thirds con- 
cealed, obscurely undulated ; aperture elliptical, 
deeply indented by the preceding whorl. 


WY sons four or five, the last nearly half the diameter 
of the shell, the undulations are continued and rather 
strongest over the rounding back, they are obscure in 
all but the central whorls, and the latter whorls of old 
shells are destitute of them. The outline of the aperture 
is a very regular ellipsis. The septa are near, very 
much and beautifully sinuated at their margins, and 
locked into each other. 

This rather singular Ammonite is often formed of 
pyrites, of rich golden and iridescent tints, and crystal- 
lized in the greatest variety of forms, from the oc- 
taédron to the icosaédron, following the undulations of 
the chambers and the most attenuated ramifications of 
the spreading follicula, sometimes forming in the place 
of the shells, &c. &c. occasionally filled with a great 
variety of crystals of Carbonate of Lime an inch or more 
in length. Specimens vary in size from 12 to 18 inches 
or even more. ‘The outer whorl has generally few or no 
undulations, while they are more distinct in the center, 
which, if seen separated, might be mistaken for an- 
other species. The attenuated and ramifying sutures 
of the septa are remarkably striking in the present spe- 
cimen, and put me in mind of the friendly and attentive 


Geologist, Greenough, whose genius spreads and rami- 
fies so abundantly, that I could not resist commemo- 
rating it with sentiments of friendship, that the suavity 
of his manners has stamped on my mind. May he con- 
tinue long to enjoy that ardour, which contributes so 
much to his happiness, and is so instructive to all around 



ORTHOCERA annulata. 


Spec. Cuar. Slightly tapering, gently compressed, 
with strong annular undulations, and minute 
transverse undulating striz. 

Tue undulations are slightly oblique, ata distance equal 
to about one-fourth the diameter from each other; about the 
aperture which is oval, there is a considerable space without 
a ring: the siphuncle is placed a little way within the 
broader side of the shell. 

From a Limestone quarry at Colebrook Dale, Shrop- 
shire, it was presented to me by the friendly J. Cotton, 
esq. Lady Aylesford shewed me, some time since, 
a similar, but rather shorter specimen. It appears 
to taper so gradually, that we may suppose it 18 inches 
or more long when perfect. The upper part of the figure 
expresses the last chamber, which appears to extend 
three-fourths of an inch beyond the preceding septum. 
The form of the shell remains, it being replaced by Car- 
bonate of Iron, thin, but distinct, thickest at the annula- 
tions, which are occasionally dark brown from having been 
worn when uncovered, or destitute of the buff Limestone. 
The specimen is rather weighty, as if much impregnated 
with Lron. 

VOL..Ui./9/6. XXIV 


or ‘4 ja 

aie vat. 
art wrt pane idee hein wait ti ablsviost va hag” 

, Riba wanna ateewt viata & eioraitt fiers ag babe oulrage 
ae? Bi, qae abit & oauly a abate # ast: ‘poe 9 ae 
u ya Ms ne me 4 4 nee it da ti itd T6 able “ ih» iid MA Rs ie 

; Neon a Seoudstodh iv ‘deen » isc et winnie B mare ; 

ee .. « peste sith ie hi On fi Sits vee eqw ti s 

‘ggetie ii’ ‘shia By aie: “su” he 

oi: peg yaaa dram ere axl ede hovig: ae ‘jag 
gee att tw Hog a iro ah ey ead ve sto? mm 

one hilt wk hier Soir: bis ait. beck Pye eee: 

pinent ee sage hata a 190 at Asien 0 at 
deters hint 94 tS: afayiteal sh shiete : pPacnttas siushor <i 
ai ssc wi nee Yodiws. ef die a. a 
eat eS if 


a Me 


AMMONITES auritus. 

Spec. Cuar. Compressed, with obscure radiating 
undulations tuberculated at their origin ; inner 
whorls exposed ; back deeply channelled, bor- 
dered by large alternating compressed tubercles. 


W nonrts four or five, the last nearly half the diameter, 
or twice the thickness of the shell long. 

Discovered in the micaceous sand when the Devizes 
Canal was digging, by Mrs. Gent, who favoured me 
with some other productions from thence some time 
since: the stratum to which they belong appears to 
require their aid to distinguish it. It is more or less 
micaceous, and in most instances there are only casts 
remaining of the forms that existed or were enveloped in 
it, and which have not yet been recognised in any other 
formation that I know of:* they are preserved in a pe- 
culiar way, being of so loose and crumbly a texture as 
scarcely to hold together, and a little change of wet and 
dry would soon fit them to be dispersed by the slightest 
wind ; but a certain depth has protected them in a place 
where they might have been preserved for ages more 
securely than in the most careful hands. 

* I have two or three species from Folkstone belonging to the same 
section as this, one of which I think is figured by Parkinson, Org. Rem. 
tab. 9, f. 8. 

a oenteh oui cane 4 ak tessa es 
tit BeidaPaw aa “ankgh\ Ath, Bay 
i. eeiice acetate’ ame ate ed toa saa “ie 
“eK. esenqers, ‘ariglod ei ahisittiee Ob aaa alt, yao 
i OR SH ar is li Hadurgsatieads oe dia, sie Cb a) IE 
da ort isa asgomadeuk, idea ai Daa elio% ae aioE 
pth as Onde, 0 hoteixe tds serergt odd. Fu ysivias 
fo D yin a ai Basingodsr, wag: tay dou grad daide: bai 
a a by pas bibs ou hit me pus end i saat ae 

“Asi bin, ty stands fil Py: bag. ye teks leah davies 1) pie 
a ale oh Ke, asso it at monte he one bivog nee i 

i ahelleg: | i Me 

: asi’ us, tet Benes iad reer £ iain dad: edu , 
ue fe ‘ae ee aed "Yau ach bs mae, ehysogen i 



opeiminitin) ene 

i rg oti “hh i «tl al wakes pore we ies Wath we ve pate! Bel 
ae iat 00 hint -cA Brat tees |  lvtade ha a0" ag oa anliaee 
; te ia as isl al 


OSTREA canaliculata. 
TAB. CXXXV.---Fig. 1. 

Spec. Cuar. Depressed, very long, curved, two 
eared ; a descending sinus or two in the an- 
terior margin near the front; sides nearly 



Geweratty three times as long as wide; the ears are 
rather large, nearly equal, and distinguishable in both 
valves : the posterior or concave side is often open: a 
few concentric undulations are observable near the beak 
of the lower concave valve: the upper valve is very flat, 
without a prominent beak. 

This species of oyster was sent me by Mr. Richard 
Taylor, from the Chalk Cliff at Mundsley near Cromer, 
with Magas pumilus, tab. 119, (where the locality should 
have been given as here specified,) and Terebratula 
carnea, tab. 15. fig. 5 and 6. It seems pretty well iden- 
tified by the ears both in the upper and lower valves, but 
most conspicuous on the incurved side: the convex side 
is also mostly plaited with two or more canaliculated pro- 
jections. I could discover no marks of attachment at 
the beak, which is acuminated and apparently indepen- 

The Ostree, so universally distributed, are very puz- 
zling in their varieties. { have therefore endeavoured 
to distinguish two or three here, that some reference 
may be had occasionally, if the characters I have used 
will answer the purpose of distinguishing them in the 
numerous places where they are found. 

OSTREA acuminata: 
TAB. CXXXV.--- Fig. 2 and 3. 

Spec. Cuan. Depressed, very long, curved, with 
large subimbricated transverse waves beneath : 
beaks and front acuminated. 


Two or three times as long as wide, the upper valve 
rather concave, smooth and nearly even, with a beak 
almost equal to that of the other valve. 

Fig. 2. represents specimens sent me from the clay 
under the great Oolite of Bath, by favour of the Rev. H. 
Steinhauer in 1813: they have been parasitical on va- 
rious formed things: have little or no auricles; they 
have large undulations, and vary much as to curvature. 
Fig. 3. are taken from shells found at Aynho, North- 
amptonshire, by Miss Wilson. ‘They appear to be the 
same species as the last mentioned, and they vary very 
much as to their length, curvature, &c.: yet the undu- 
lations may help to distinguish them. I have similar 

shells from near Withyam, Sussex. 


PECTEN equivalvis. 
TAB. CXXXVI.—Fig. 1. 

Spec. Cuar. Lenticular, with rounded diverging 
ribs and many acute concentric striz ; valves 
equally convex, the lower one smoothest ; ears 


Tue ribs vary in proportion ; they sometimes equal the 
space between them, but are generally less; they are 
rounded and the strie are more or less obliterated over 
them: the spaces between them are slightly concave. 

Pectens are generically described by Lamarck as in- 
equivalve, wherefore, I suppose, he had not seen any 
otherwise ; but the present species has both valvesnearly, 
if not quite, equally gibbous: one valve being simply 
convex, the other having a trifling reversed undulation 
near the edge, and differing but little in the pattern. The 
auricles have not, as I have seen, been found perfect, 
they are, however, nearly so, and they then show an 
horizontal line on each side of the beak, with nearly per- 
pendicular linex or strie. Ihave one by favour of Dr. 
Sutton, which has nearly parallel lines with the hinge on 
the dexter auricle of the broader valve, with the broad 
coste. This species is commonly found from three to 
seven inches in diameter. Mr. Strangewayes, from whom 
{ have received several specimens, observes, that they 
are characteristic of the coarse Limestone of Ilminster. 
T have had other specimens from near Lackington, by 
favour of Mr. Strangewayes, also from Farley gateway, 
Gloucestershire ; Carrington, Oxfordshire; and from 
Dursley, Gloucestershire. I believe the species is found 
in various other parts of England, and I have a specimen 
from France. 


PECTEN fibrosus. 
TAB. CXXXVI.—Fig. 2. 

Spec. Cuar. Depressed, orbicular, with a rectan- 
gular beak, nine or ten broadish diverging 
grooves and numerous sharp concentric strie ; 
ears equal, rectangular; margin undulated 

= SS ee 

Rane longer than broad ; the back is formed of two 
straight lines meeting at an angle, sometimes greater, but 
seldom less than a right angle ; the undulations within the 
margin are regular and rather deep. The striz are com- 
posed. of small very prominent sharp ridges that hold the 
shell firmly to the stone in which it lies, 

This is remarkable at first sight for its broad and few 
sulci, and for the fine undulating transverse striz all over 
them. I have but seldom seen it in pairs, but Mr. 
Strangewayes has a pair from Carrington, Oxfordshire, 
and I have an excellent specimen from the Chatley Corn- 
brash, by favour of T. Meade,esq. and asmall one showing 
the inside from Oxfordshire. These last two are figured. 
Mr. Mantell was so kind as to send me one from North 
Leach, Gloucestershire, which has only 9 coste, and 
Mrs. Gent has met withsomething similar, but plainer at 
Kellaways; if these should prove to be distinct species, 
E shall notice them again. 


VENUS Linn. Lam. 

Gey. Cuar. Suborbicular or transverse. Ligament 
external; a lunette in the posterior side ; two 
_ diverging teeth near the beak. 

ee a, eed 

"Tueshells of this Genus have three muscular impressions ; 
the cartilage on one side and the lunette on the other, 
together with the general form, gives them a resemblance 
to those of the Linnean Genus, Venus. Their outsides 
have transverse undulations or reflected depressed coste, 
which give the surface a natural character, by which they 
may be distinguished upon general inspection. Theiredges 
are mostly crenulated within. There is one tooth less in 
the hinge than in Venus; the beaks are generally filled 
up, not hollow within under the teeth; there is also com- 
monly an obscure elongated tooth at some distance from 
the beak under the lunette. Of this Genus there are seve- 
ral recent British species and many Foreign ones, all 
of which have hitherto been classed under Venus; of the 
former are Venus Scotica, (which may be taken for the 
type of the Genus) V. sulcata, Danmoniz, paphia, fas- 
ciata, subcordata. It was not until I sought for the proper 
place in the system for the fossil species, “that I perceived 
the necessity of making a new Genus, to which I have 

given the name of one of the Heathen Deities, sometimes 

styled Venus. 

ASTARTE lurida. 
TAB. CX Pig. 4. 

Spec. Cuar. Transversely oblong, convex, de- 
pressed, with many transverse undulations ; 
lunette elliptical, sharp ; margin crenulated 

nee ie 

A oratuer thick shell with a straightish front, and 
arched back, half as wide again as it is long. 
A blue sandy Clay in the Fox-hill quarries, Gloucester- 

1816. XX¥Y> 


shire, afforded Mr. Robert Taylor this perfect specimen, 
which he was so obliging as to communicate for general 
information. Mr. Taylor has also found it in coarse 
Limestone at Taunton. 

ne nen = 

ASTARTE elegans. 
TAB. CXXXVII.— Fig. 3, 
Spec. Cuar. ‘Transversely oblong, corivex, de- 
pressed, with many small transverse coste ; 
lunette cordate ; margin crenulated within. 


Mi vcu resembles the last, but the front is notso straight 
and the back not so much arched; the teeth in the hinge 
are also more distant. 

By favour of Mr. Strangewayes, from Babling-hill, 
Yeovil ; itso matches the upper specimen that the oppo- 
site shells fit at the hinges; it differs, however, in 
shape a little, having a more graceful turn on the side 
from the lunette, more of Hogarth’s line of beauty, the 
other being straighter : it is also generally rather longer 
for its breadth: it is a cast in Carbonate of Lime. 

ASTARTE cuneata. 
TAB. CXXXVII.—Fig. 2. 
Spec. Cuar. Subcordate, acuminated, gibbose, 
with small transverse coste ; lunette cordate ; 
margin entire within. 

S oeumintietidn:d, ‘sonntieteemnenend 

"Tue back of thisis broadand flattened; anterior side acu- 
minated ; the general form isatriangle, of which the poste- 
rior side isthe shortest. [havenotseen the margin periect. 

From Chilmark, near Tisbury, Wiltshire, a quarry, 
supposed to correspond with that of Chicksgrove ; Mr. 
Jackson, some time before his death, brought me speci- 
mens, and Miss Benett has since favoured me with 
variety. Some specimens are neater and more regular 
in their strie than others, being deeper and wider. The 
shell is replaced by Carbonate of Lime, which is some- 
times crystallized; the stone in which they are imbedded 
is an earthy Limestone containing a small portion of green 



Spec. Cuar. Orbicular, gibbose, plicato-striated ; 
with a flattish space extending from the front 
to the beaks; beak of the lower valve promi- 
nent, slightly incurved; back of the upper 
valve straight, with an incurved beak. 

——— eee 

Tue length and breadth are nearly equal and almost 
double the depth: the plice are small, rounded, and 
often furcate, hence they are not much larger at the 
margin than at the beaks. 

Furnished by the green sand stratum, at Horningsham, 
near Longleat, four miles west of Warminster, and may 
be considered characteristic of the stratum and is figured 
by Townsend and Smith. Mr. Meade has a larger speci- 
men from the same place. The figure in the French 
Encyclopedia is hardly satisfactory enough to be de- 

Spec. Cuar. Oblong, convex, with diverging fur- 
cated plaits ; beak of the lower valve greatly 

elongated, that of the upper valve short, in- 

Linern of the upper valve equal to twice its width ; 
the beak of the lower valve is probably equal to the 
length of the upper valve, it contains two longitudinal 


Septa :* the upper surface is smooth, with a slight sul- 
cus along the middle and a stria on each side of it; how 
it terminates is at present unknown. 

This species is considered in the French Encyclopedia, 
where it is figured, as perfect at the perforated end, and 
although Mr. Meade and others have kindly lent me their 
best and most complete specimens, I have never seenone 
nearly perfect. The larger figure is about the sizeof Mr. 
Meade’s largest specimen. Mr. Cumberland, indeed, 
considered it a new Genus and named it Lyra Meadi, in 
compliment to our worthy friend, whom I esteem so 
much, but the term Lyra is so apt I could not resist 
applying it to the specific name. The analogy of many 
species of similar construction, although not so much 
elongated, show that it cannot, with propriety, at pre- 
sent be separated from the perforated and plaited Tere- 
bratule, for want of distinguishing characters, (although 
they may hereafter be divided) till those further removed, 
being imperforate, are more settled. 

I found some specimens in the green sand at Chute 
Farm, near Horningsham, chiefly silicized. 

# I have observed indications of similar septa in the beaks of some 




Gen. Cuar. Univalve, not spiral, more or less 
conical, concave and simple beneath; margin 
and apex entire. 

Tats Genus includes at present only such shells of Lin- 

neus’s Genus Patella as have entire margins and are not 

perforated at the apex ; their form varies from nearly flat 
with an umbo to obliquely conical, with a curved apex, 
and there is a gradualsuccession of forms from one shape 
to the other, therefore, I cannot see the propriety of con- 
Stituting Genera founded upon the form of the cone only. 

PATELLA Iatissima. 
TAB. CXXXIX.—Fig. 1 and 5. 

Srec.Cuar. Nearly orbicular, flat, smooth. 

Suet very thin, concentrically undulated ; the umbo is 
excentric; the margin forms a very short oval. 

Fig. 1 shows aspecimen from a slaty Clay impregnated 
with vegeto-bituminous matter, approaching the Kim- 
meridge coal, that occurs in Lincolnshire. The foliated 
form of the Clay seems to arise from the same pressure 
which has flattened the shell so as to crack the margin, 
and make it rather doubtful how flat it would be if 
perfect : the upper surface is still attached to the Clay, 
it may possibly be roughish, but this I have not been 
able to ascertain; however, there are characters enough 

von. 1. (4/6. XXV 


to distinguish it from most other species. The stratum 
it occurs in, may probably be recognized by it in some 
other place. There are several places in Somersetshire 
where Ammonites are found compressed in a somewhat 
similar Clay. It is worth while to examine whether this 
or any other species of Patella occurs with them. 

Fig. 5 is from a shell, or rather the cast of one ina 
compact Limestone, found in a rolled mass among lumps 
of Chalk, Sandstone, and Gravel, at Pakefield, in Suf- 
folk ; the stone has a largely foliated structure ; it con- 
tains Telline, Ammonites, Vertebra, &c.* all compressed 
in the direction of the lamine, but this Patella is not so 
much so as in the Clay, therefore, it is but little cracked 
at the edges. 


PATEELA levis. 
TAB. CXXXIX.—Fig. 3 and 4. 

Spec. Cuar. Depressed, conical, smooth, shining ; 
base obovate; apex excentric. 

eee PB 

AA very smooth, even-formed. shell, about one-third of 
its length high and rather slender. 

I have two specimens of this. I believe it has hitherto- 
been overlooked ; the smaller one is. from Whitby, where 
it was found in that inexhaustible formation, the Alum 
Clay, which, independantly of its value in the formation 
of Alum, has attracted notice from the many larger fossil 
preductions, that in a manner eclipse this minute shell. 
The other specimen was found in Clay at Folkstone; I 
suspect it is a rare species. 

* The same stone produced.a Lingula figured at tab. 19. Mr. Thurtell 
sent me nearly the whole of it, and it has turned, out very productiye. 


PATELLA equalis. 
TAB. CXXXIX.—Fig. 2. 

Spec. Cuar. Conical, smooth; base obovate; 
back nearly perpeidicular. 


Tere are some faint signs of radii upon the surface of 
this; its height is nearly equal to its width; it is rather 
broader towards the front, and the apex, which is rather 
obtuse, is so excentric as to be almost perpendicular over 
the edge; the surface is covered with a light brown 

Good specimens of this are rarely found in the Suffolk 
Craig. Mrs. Cobbold favoured me with this from the 
Holywells estate near Ipswich. 

PATELLA rugosa. 
TAB. CXXXIX.—Fig. 6. 
Spec. Cuar. Depressed, obovate, radiated; apex 

excentric, depressed, slightly recurved ; back 
concave above, with reflected undulations. 

Syn. Park. org. rem. 3. 

Tue radii are rather numerous and strongly marked ; 
the lines of growth are too faint to make a distinct decus- 
sation, but there are generally two or three large undu- 
lations around the shell which approach each other behind 


the apex, and rise so much as to give the margin the 
appearance of having been rolled or gathered up, as one 
might gather up the edge of a woollen cap while holding 
it in the hand: the shell appears to be tolerably thick. 
Hampton Common and Amberley Heath, near Mincli- 
inhampton, Gloucestershire, afford this shell, in Bath 
shelly Oolite. I have to thank the Rev. Mr. Newton for 
my specimen, a token of some years standing ; it is cha- 
racteristic of the bed in which it occurs, where it is not 
very rare, and is generally in a very high state of pre- 

PATELLA unguis. 
TAS: CXXXIX.—Fig. fs 
Spec. Cuar. Depressed, suborbicular, obscurely 

radiated ; vertex oblique recurved, extended 
beyond the base, acute. 


A rather flat shell, being about one-third of its width 
high; the whole of the beak is solid; the other parts 
gradually growing thinner to a sharp edge. ‘The recent 
Patella ungarica of Linneus is so very similar to this 
fossil, that I doubt if a distinction can be found; if there 
be any it lies in the radii, which are very obscure in this, 
a circumstance that may be attributed to wear; the 
beak is, perhaps, less oblique, but in this it is variable. 
My specimens came from the Holywells Craig. 


Gen. Cuar. Univalve, discoid, involute; without 
septa; spire flat or impressed ; aperture entire. 

'Tu1s Genus has been well separated from Helix of 
Linneus, it contains shells composed of a simple tube 
curved into a Volute; in many species the latter whorls 
partly embrace those preceding, but this is not the case 
with several shells which otherwise have a natural 
relation to the type of the Genus, so [ have omitted that 
part of Lamark’s Generic character which relates to it. 
The recent shells are inhabitants of fresh water. 

PLANORBIS equalis. 
TAB. CXL.—Fig. 1. 

Spec. Cuar. Equilaterally concave, with one 
obscure keel on the right side and two on the 
left; smooth; volutions exposed; aperture or- 

2 e]E-_-—ee— 

Tue inside of the tube composing this is perfectly round 
but the shell is thicker towards the front, so as to make: 
the outer edge of the mouth obtusely obovate; the con- 
centric caring are very obtuse and inconspicuous. There 
is a slight impression of the preceding whorl in the sub- 
stance of the last. 

A specimen of Limestone from Kendal afforded me 
this shell, it is replaced or cast in white Carbonate of 
Lime or Spathose Limestone, and is filled up with darker 
amorphous Limestone, which is somewhat of a redder 



brown where exposed: there appear to be fragments of 
Entrochi also in the stone. The Planorbis resembles so 
much the fresh water Helices of Linnezus, thatall the spe- 
cies have been considered by some as inhabitants of fresh 
water, but this would seem an exception. 

Se EB 

PLANORBIS cylindricus. 
TAB. CXL.—Fig. 2. 

Spec. Cuar. Cylindrical, left side concentrically 
striated ; volutions three or four, adpressed ; 
aperture oblong quadrangular. 


Tut aperture of this shell is transverse, being wider 
than long, nearly in the proportion of three to two; the 
angles are obtuse, and it receives no indentation from the 
preceding whorl. The shell is about three times its 
thickness in diameter, and the left side has six or eight — 
obscure elevated striz. 

Some years since L was for a few hours at Cowes, on 
the Isle of Wight, and picked up a piece or two of stone 
which contained some of these shells, but as my time and 
immediate occupation did not allow me to extend my 
researches, I was content with what I had; this was in 
the severe frosty and stormy weather of February, 1808. 
I soon after visited by kind friend, Mr. Iremonger, at 
Wherwell vicarage, who gave me specimens he had from 
the Isle of Wight, on examining which I found several 
species of Planorbis and a Lymnea much resembling 
Helix stagnalis of Linneus, which I will add to this 
work hereaiter. 

The Planorbis here figured differs feom Helix contorta 
in the whorls being more equal and angular on each 
side and less numerous: the figures are about the natural 
size of the best Ehave seen. The remains are shelly with 
a smooth inside: the outside shows the lines of growth. 


PLANORSBIS obtusus. 
TAB. CXL.—Fig. 3. 

Srec. Cuar, Depressed, left side most concave: 
volutions embracing, slightly compressed on the 
right side; aperture obliquely and obtusely 
obcordate. Tt 

Te volutions are very few and much concealed, the 

obtuse rounding edge which gives the short obcordate 

form to the aperture distinguishes it from the next species: 
its thickness is equal to about one-fourth of its width: it 
is very pellucid and shining. 

Found in the same stone as the last. 


TAB. CXL.—Fig. 4. 
Spec. Cuar. Lenticular, subcarinated, volutions 
embracing ; aperture yery oblique, obcordate. 
Arocerner much flatter than the last, with the sides 
more equally concave; about one-sixth of its width in 
thickness; it much resembles the recent British Planorbis. 

From the Isle of Wight, with the above and following 

PLANORBIS hemistoma. 
TAB. CXL.— Fig. 6, 

Spec. Cuan. Depressed, smooth; right side con- 
vex, umbilicate; left side flat; aperture 
oblique, subtriangular. 

A minute shell, seldom exceeding one line in diameter 
and afourth of one in thickness: the volutions, although 
partly concealed by hanging over on the right side, make 
no impression on each other: the aperture is triangular, 
with the angles and one side rounded. ids 

I picked this up insand at Plumstead along with Car- 
dium plumstediense and various other marine shells, 
Sharks’ teeth, &e. The lower figures are magnified, the 
upper figure about the natural size. 


PLANORBIS radiatus. 
TAB. CXL.—Fig. 5. 
Spec. Cuar. Lenticular, radiated; left side um- 

- pilicate; volutions nearly concealed ; aperture 
obcordate. . . 

Tis is a strong shell; the radii are a kind of plaits gra- 
dually disappearing towards the margin and very sharp 
but not deep in the umbilicus: the mouth adheres, with 
swelling edges to the next whorl; about one-fourth of its 
diameter in thickness. — 

When describing the Planorbis in general, I could not 
help thinking it convenient to describe a shell from the 
micaceous green sand formation, and rather mixed with 
marine with fresh water products, and which may, per- 
haps, hereafter, with further information, lead to the 
separation of another Genus. Itis remarkable for forming 
nearly the whole whorl on one side and having smalj 
indistinct inner whorls. In this green and micaceous 
sand we also find inner casts like fig. 8. 

= EEE 

PLANORBIS euomphalus. 
TAB, CXL.— Fig. 7, 8, and 9. 

Spec. Cuar. Depressed, subcarinated, concen- 
trically striated; right side flat; left side 
largely umbilicate ; aperture subtriangular. 

~ = SP 

W noxzs five or six, exposed, gibbose and rather an- 

gular on the left side, forming a deep umbilicus ; the 

aperture receives a slight impression from the preceding 
whorl. The stria are fine all over the shell, and here and 
there, upon the flat side in particular, are a few larger, 

more prominent ones. | . f . 

Tiis’shell bas been described as from the Isle of Wight, 
by Mr. Webster, in the Geological Transactions : my 
spemines are from the mass Mr. Iremonger gave me in 

1808, eontaining several of the preceding species. I 

believe it differs sufficiently from the French species. 

Fig. 8 and 9 represent casts, apparently of this shell, 
they were sent me by Mr. Davies, of Bath, found in the 
neigibourhood; occasionally such types may be useful 
they are Limestone. 


Gen. Cuar. Univalve, spiral, conical, without a 
columella ; funnel-shaped beneath ; volutions 

— ee 

Moszr of the shells of this genus have round mouths, 
not indented by the last whorl, but united to it by an 
expansion and thickening of the substance of the shell. 
The apex is always elevated much above the base, and 
equally so at all ages of the shell; whereas, in Kuom- 
phalus, the genus nearest united to this, the apex is but 
jittle eleyated, except sometimes in old shells, when the 
last whorl descends more than usual; from Scalaria it 
differs in the union of the whorls, and the want of ribs. 

A shell of this genus is distinguished at once by the 
peculiar aspect of the funnel-shaped umbilicus which 
exposes the inner parts of the whorls. It is a curious 
genus, and would be considered a Turbo till modern 
discernment showed the necessity of nicer distinctions : 
having no columella it represents the whorl of some 
tendrils called Cirri, or a curled lock of hair, I have 
_ therefore named it Cirrus. 

CIRRUS acutus. 
TAB. CXLI.---Fig. 1. 

Spec. Cuar. Conical, sharp, with an obscure ca- 
* ‘ina near the upper part of each whorl ; aper- 
ture round. 

= — 

W norts about eight ; the height and the diameter of the 
base are equal: the volutions are united by only a small 
part of their surface, as is the case with most of the 
genus: the lines of growth are longitudinal, fine and 

This specimen was sent me long ago by Mr. Martin 
from Derbyshire ; it is extremely neat; there are crystals 
of Carbonate of Lime within it. 


CIRRUS nodosus. 
TAB. CXLI.—Fig. 2. 

Spec. Cuar. Acutely conical, spire reversed, with 
two obscure transverse carine, upon which are 
numerous longitudinally extended tubercles ; 
aperture orbicular. 

Taere are two rows of tubercles on each whorl, formed 
by the intersection of transverse and longitudinal ridges, 
the upper row is the largest, and the other is inconspi- 
euous: the aperture seems from the cast to have been 
somewhat plaited. 

Dr. Leach, at present so well known for his extensive 
researches into Natural History, some years since pre- 
sented me with this specimen, picked up near Yeovil ; it 
is a reverse shell, and seems to have been gregarious : 
two were here crowded together: there were signs of 
Ammonites in the mass. It has had apparently a very 
acuminated spire, seven turns of which remain, and the 
space above for as many more, according to the general 

CIRRUS plicatus. 
TAS. CRE Figs 3. 

Spec. Cuar. Conical, transversely striated, base 
angular ; sides flattened ; umbilicus plaited or 
deeply striated ; aperture oblong. 

=o tie 

Base rather broader than the height ; the aperture is 
subquadrangular, and wider than it is long. The angu- 
lar form of the outer edge giving a flatness to the cone 
it would form if perfect, will help to distinguish this 
species : the lines of growth are indistinct, the creases or 
plaits in the umbilicus, which is rather small, and looks 
as if formed by the curvature of the shell, are a help to its 

From Folkstone, by favour of Mr. Gibbs: it has, like 
other productions of that place, some of the original shell 
remaining, which is occasionally finely iridescent ; the 
present is rather chalky, The inside cast is a mixture of 
ironey clay with lime. 


TROCHUS similus. 

‘Spec. Cuar. Conical, base rather convex, volu- 
tions squarish, with tubercles upon their angles, 
transversely carinato-striate, and a round- 
ing elevation in their centers ; lines of growth 
decussating the three central striz. 

SS ae 

"Tue tubercles are numerous, rather depressed, but 
large, the stria are undulated and pass over them ; be- 
tween the three central strie which lie upon the elevated 
part of the whorls the lines of growth are seen very 
sharp, close and regularly arched: the columella is im- 
perforate, and the interior of the shell is nearly plain, 
retaining but small signs of the tubercles: the aperture 
is square with rounded angles, and the inner lip is thick- 
ened, two characters not well expressed in the figure, 
which was taken from a handsome, but in this respect an 
imperfect specimen. 

The Blue Lias at Weston near Bath, and in the neigh- 
bourhood of Yeovil, Lackington Park, Shotover, &c. 
abounds with this Trochus. Lister found it at Bugthorp, 
Yorkshire, and has figured it in his Conchology, f. 1036. 
It is found of considerable size, and more or less worn 
so as to disguise it in a way that makes it often difficult 
to distinguish the species. When most perfect it is very 
much ornamented with transverse undulating strie, and 
often a rather conspicuous sort of belt, which has what 
some have occasionally denominated a herring bone 
marking. Among my specimens are several casts of the 
interior only ; some are included in a mould of the outer 
surface, like the lower figure; and the space between 


them contains a few crystals of carbonate of lime; other 
specimens have this space quite filled up, and the sur- 
rounding stone broken away; of such is the upper 
figure : some casts are beautified with octohedral crystals 
of pyrites. 

A Trochus nearly resembling this is found in some 
parts of Normandy, but comparison wil} prove that they 
are distinct species. 


CARDITA tuberculata. 

Spec. Cuar. Heartshaped, longitudinally radiated, 
radii tuberculated ; valves equal, laterally com- 
pressed, longitudinally subcarinate, one side 
semilobate, the other nearly flat, beaks much 

Tae length, breadth, and depth are in the proportion 
of 5. 4. and 3.; the radii are not deep,—they are nume- 
rous, and in sets of three or four, with more enlarged 
and conspicuous ones intervening. 

The micaceous sandy strata dug through to make the 
Devizes canal, has afforded some curious casts and im- 
pressions of shells. The present was among others col- 
lected by the indefatigable and discerning Mrs. Gent, 
who has obligingly lent me the rarities of her collection 
to draw. The beauty of this specimen, and the tender 
adherence of the sand, infering the probability of time 
obliterating the greatest beauty of its ornamental striez, 
I considered it a treat to preserve a resemblance of it, as 
every touch brings away some grains. It is rather 
obliquely compressed, as if by accident, yet it appears 
to be a compressed shell with elegant curved beaks. 
Should the same occur in greater perfection, we may 
possibly discover with certainty all its characters, in the 
mean time the utility of publishing it now will be appre_ 
ciated by the information, which bids fair to lead the 
attention and elicit discovery. 

iste sesame aid to psa ott wink “ot it 
lo yilididang only qaingivi dowoe oul? te aoasierlba. 
i pe ae cam att Yo viewed testeory out galimsatilda, 
rete ALS ts $i Te penal manss orroneny ab toeyt w ti borebiasoo £: Dee 
; vohet al. i agliep sere yawe ayaied duvot yiawk!)  ~ 
-agqge 2 te Jenbinas yd Mowe doreriqies ylompilda — 
ahead howtes tmipais die Kiade hageogggro9 aad ot 
yoo oe .cvitesbrey tehewiy Mi tida0 dttilin oid blond © 
oft Gi erstourciits edit The piistes dite, wreonth yidiaeo 
comgqat od live wren Raideiidy, Ww pilite ods.enti) aaom 
=. Lena ot sit eb b maeh eeBearcolal att ed. betsig. 
comes ‘inthe - re e ; 



CARDIUM semigranulatum. 

Spec. Cuar. Gibbose, transverse, subtriangular, 
longitudinally striated, posterior side straight, 
longitudinally sulcated, and largely granulated. 


V ery similar to the Cardium edule in general form, but 
often twice as large ; it is a slender shell, smooth to the 
touch, but is covered with fine longitudinal striz ; upon the 
posterior side the strie are enlarged and become sharp 
sulci, on the ridges between these sulci are many small 
irregularly globose tubercles or granules; the edge is 
minutely dentated. 

Of this Cardium some large fragments were presented 
to me from Barton Cliff, by Miss Benett; I had pre- 
viously received small ones by favour of the Rev. W. 
Bingley, and, in 1814, Mr. Bullock was so kind as to 
present me with a small, nearly entire specimen, from 
the Clay stratum, related to that of Highgate, in the 
Regent’s Park, since which, in 1815, the same species 
has been found in the continuation of the same stratum, 
near the White Conduit House, at Islington. I do not 
know that it was ever found at Highgate, although many 
Shells like the Highgate productions were found with it; 
it was accompanied in these places by two or three other 
species of shells not found at Highgate and some stems 
of Pentacrini, with the appearance of the shelly substance 
about them ; none such were found at Highgate, and I 
am pretty confident no specimen of Argonauta was found 
there, although report has said there was. 


This Cardium is very distinct from any of the Genus 
that I know, yet its general resemblance to those figured 
in tab. 14 would have found it a place near them had E 
possessed it at that time, and now I have no British con- 
gener to place with it: my best specimen is full of Pyrites, 
and may fall to pieces, for which reason it was advisable 
to secure a remembrance of it. 




Spec. Cuar. Discoid, gibbose, smooth, with a 
spiral band along the upper part of the whorl ; 

aperture large, expanded, elliptical. 

R aruer less than an inch high, and an inch anda half 
wide; the strie of growth are rather obscure, except 
near the upper part of the whorl, where they run into a 
narrow sulcus that forms the spiral band. 

I am favoured with permission to draw this pretty 
cast by Mrs. Gent, whose name I have given it in com- 
memoration of that scientific zeal which trusted an 
unique tender micaceous sandy cast to travel so far. I 
presume it to be an Helix, as somewhat according with - 
tab. 10 and the position of the band is probably a good 
characteristic distinction: it was gathered in the mica- 
geous sand formation near Devizes. 

VOL. It. XX ¥1 I2/¢ 

r a 

ek aK ae 4 if 
eh MAS By hitges r Fi i 


} fn 9c wyere qe a adi ian hoa be 

tp Aue 

Ea ait, dinbnagr are, ti) 
. imate Wah je ms 

saidind on bax ene: ae sod abil } 

Tae. viens i wed 4° shah ear ts aa a alt thine 

in @ obi add aot “asd Sead ot ‘ont te ‘a 199 ne od ta 

AB j : : Te er eS eat 
| t oe te ii ey i te ei red ania adh soge a we ii 
Pos eG erg: sy eal 8 soisalrareg adie. Beuto; i. me 

cy te ; Ek , we a? a ai) yy ont + z veto cand oe Nee eo fas 
enc ‘ AMS . Shs Kher 
i opera five # inst oben sath ; iB 

‘ “yar Ger 5 

ie: he Pie ; lo sa as: = vat ay Ta vith, as souk hans aupoan 

at Co cer ee a 
a: | ma A ii hy i: iat he vel wl is: ite cone ait esi of dat 

é Es ee oes 
1 ie } wae #% faethe ' 
eos) A ¥ Si ale ati oes ele aon? det aed ; at 
; cS aa beyee eink ieee 4 
Z tir a : 
i 3 x a uy 
Lh aE el € : | 
my Y 
4 3 +) 
‘owe > hid 


Gen. Cuar. An univalve, fusiform or subturreted 
shell; base of the aperture channelled; a deep 
sinus in the upper part of the outer lip. 


Tne form of the mouth in fossil shells of this Genus is 
seldom distinguishable except in the lines of growth ; the 
thinness of the outer lip renders it so liable to accidents. 
The general form is similar to that of Murex, Fusus, 
&e. The beak is straight, and the columella without 

PLEUROTOMA attenuata. 
TAB. CXLVI.—Fig. 1. 

Spec. Cnar. Fusiform, base attenuated; longitu- 
dinally undulated ; undulations five or six, with 
a large compressed tubercle at the upper end 
of each ; volutions transversely striated; aper- 
ture narrow, straight. 
Tue upper part of each whorl is nearly even, being only 
striated and is bounded by transversely compressed tuber- 
cles on the upper part of oblique undulations or caste: 
over these and the remainder of the whorl are numerous 
small subtuberculated ridges with strie between them. 
The aperture equals half the entire length of the shell: 
the beak is produced by the gradual tapering of the last 
whorl and is of the same length as the spire; the width 
is equal to one fourth of the length; a rugged aspect is 
given by the irregular lines of growth. 

This species seems to be rare, I have only yet seen two 
pieces, found at Stubbington by Mr. Holloway. Although 
many species from that place agree with those found at 
Highgate and Barton, and the foreign ones, yet I believe 
this is found no where else. 


TAB. CXLVI.—Fig. 2. 

Spec. Cuar. 'Turreted, base conical, elongated ; 
whorls concave and smooth above, below longi- 
tudinally undulated and convex ; with many 
elevated subtuberculated lines ; aperture ovate, 
elongated, canaliculated. . 

Syn. Murex exortus. Brand. f. 32. 
onerruprar undulations or coste 12 or 14, rounded 
and strongest on the spire ; the smooth concave part of 
the whorl is bounded by the commencement of the costa 
which is rather sudden; length of the aperture, including 
the beaks, equal to two-fifths of the whole shell; the 
lines of growth are indistinct, but form small tubercles 
upon the transverse lines. 

From Barton. It appears to be Murex exortus of 
Brander, or at any rate a variety approaching his M. 
macilentus. The Pleurotoma dentata of Lamarck, 
under which M. exortus is quoted, with a mark of doubt, 
is certainly distinct from any Hampshire shell I am ac- 
quainted with, as I learn from a French specimen sent 
me by Monsieur De France. 

PLEUROTOMA rostrata. 
TAB. CXLVI.—Fig. 3. 

Spec. Cuar. Fusiform, with many transverse 
ridges aud short costee, volutions obscurely de- 
cussated, expanded and slightly concave above, 
rather ventricose and roughish below: aper- 
ture elongated, canaliculated. 

Syn. Murexrostratus. Brand. f. 34. 

Coste numerous, obscure on the latter whorls; the de- 
cussations on the upper part of the whorls are very 
slight, but most distinct near the edge; the transverse 
ridges are quite free from tubercles, but are roughened 

by the lines of growth; the aperture and beak occupy 
half the length of the shell. 


_ ‘This species is found at Barton Cliff; it differs a little 
from Brander’s excellent figure in the characteristic space 
on the upper part of each whorl, arid the less acuminated 
beak, but it can only be a variety. I have seen part of 
a cast in micaceous sand, from the Devizes Canal, very 
like this, but it had not the collar, if L may so term it. 

PLEUROTOMA acuminata. 
TAB. CXLVI.—Fig. 4. 

Spec. Cuar. Turreted, acuminated, longitudinally 
ribbed, transversely striated; whorls above, 
concave, edge fimbriated; below  sulcato- 
striated; aperture elongated, canaliculated, 
one third the length of the shell ; beak broad. 

Tus coste are numerous, pretty close anda little waved; 
the edges of the whorls are elegantly marked by the lines 
of growth so as to appear fringed ; volutions about nine ; 
width equal to about one-fifth of the length. — 

The narrowness of this shell and difference in other 
respects, from Brander’s Murex macilentus, or any other 
of his shells, seems to confirm it as belonging, exclu- 
sively, to some other place ; it was found at Highgate. 
{tis a curious fact that different places, frequently im 
the same country and of a similar formation, should have 
such specific distinctions. 

TAB. CXLVL—Fig. 5. 

Spec. Cuar. Turreted, beaked, with acute transa 
verse rising lines; volutions smooth in the 
middle, with many short curved coste ; aper- 
ture ovate, canaliculated ; beak slightly curved. 

Tue coste extend only over the smooth part of the 

whorl, they are swelled at the upper part, curved and 

pointed below, something like a comma; the rising lines 

are few, sharp, even and most prominent near the mid- 

dle of each turn: aperture about two-fifths the length of 

the shell. 

Stubbington has afforded this shell to Mr. Holloway, 
and I figure it at present as rare, not knowing that it has 
been found elsewhere. 


PLEUROTOMA semicolon. 
TAB. CXLVI.—Fig. 6. _ 

Srec. Cuar. Turreted, elongated, striated, with 
many curved coste ; whorls swelled with a gra- 
nulated margin; base conical, decussated ; 
aperture ovate, beaked. 

Tur granule upon the margin of the whorls correspond 

With the coste, which are long, narrow, curved, and 

Swelled at the top: the beak is rather thick and obtuse ; 

aperture one-third the length. 

This does not appear to be a young shell although it is 
small, and as the characters are distinct and ripe, I was 
not willing to overlook it, not knowing of any other spe- 
cimen of the same species. Mr. Holloway found it at 

~ PLEUROTOMA colon. 
TAB. CXLVI.—Fig. 7 and 8. 

Spec. Cuar. Fusiform, striated; whorls concave 
above; with a crenulated margin, below with 
many rugged transverse ridges and small short 
longitudinal undulations; base conical ; aper- 
ture elongated. 

Tue transverse ridges alternate with the strie, and in 
some specimens divide the undulations into two small 
tubercles; the crenulations on the margins are also 
sometimes doubled in the same manner: the beak is 
obtuse; aperture nearly half the length of the shell ; the 
width is about one-third the length. 

Probably this is not rare at Barton Cliff, I have 
figured two varieties which I at first thought might be 
distinct species, but intermediate specimens have led me 
to alter my opinion : the chief difference is in the longitu- 
dinal undulations, which in fig. 7 are very small and 
formed into a double row of minute tubercles or punc- 
‘tums, while in fig. 8 they are larger and scarcely af- 
fected by the transverse ridges, but in it the margin still 
retains the double row of punctums or crenulations. Can 
these be young individuals of Murex turbidus of Brander ? 

Ihave named the three last species from the resem- 
blance of parts of their sculpture to the marks used ir 
punctuation, as they afford terms easily remembered. 


CERITHIUM funiculatum. 
TAB. CXLVII.—Fig. 1 and 2. 

Spec. Cuar. Pyramidal, sides straight; whorls 
with four, nearly equal crenulated carine on 
each ; base with several plain elevated ridges. 

A trnoven the carine are nearly equal, the uppermost 
or marginal one is rather the largest and the next the 
smallest; the carine look like closely knotted cords, 
twisted at equal distances round the spire. 

This species was found at Plumstead, in a gravelly 
soil, with other shells formerly described. Before com- 
parison, it so much resembled those of fig. 3 and 4 from 
Charlton, that I thought them the same species. I pre- 
sume, however, they are different enough to be consi- 
dered distinct. 

CERITHIUM intermedium. 
TAB. CXLVII.—Fig. 3 and 4, 

Spec. Cuar. Pyramidal, sides straight; whorls 
with a largely crenulated margin and five or six 
unequal earine on each; base with several 
elevated ridges. 

par eae 

Pak difference between this and the last lies principally 
in the irregularity of the carine ; the upper carina is so 
near the edge, so large and so deeply crenulated, that 
it forms a margin or border to the whorl; the others are 
unequal both in distance and size, and are either plain 
or irregularly subtuberculated ; the lines of growth in 
both are sharp. 


T have found these most abundantly at Charlton in « 
stratum of Clay above the sand, and rarely, if at all, 
elsewhere, although not easily distinguished till compared, 
and as difficult to describe; C. funiculatum from Plum- 
stead, and C. funatum, tab. 128 are great resemblances, 
especially when more or less worn, as in fig. 3. 

CERITHIUM dubium, 
TAB. CXLVIL.—Fig. 5. 

Spec. Cuar. Turreted ; whorls with a row of com- 
pressed tubercles near the middie, and two 
transverse rows of lesser tubercles below ; base 
with one or two rows of tubercles. 


Tae tubercles of the upper row are trausversely com- 
pressed and sharp, they are placed at about one-third the 
length of the whorl from its upper edge. 

Mr. Holloway found the present specimen at Stub- 
bington and he has found Cerithium giganteum there, 
from which it would appear to accord with some of the 
French formations. This may possibly be a large 
variety of Cerithium calcitrapoides of Lamarck, described 
in his account of the Fossil shells found in the environs 
of Paris, p. 82. 


CERITHIUM melanioides. 
TAB. CXLVII.---Fig. 6 and 7. 

Srec. Cuar. Turreted, obscurely longitudinally 
undulated ; whorls convex, bearing above the 
middle a largely tuberculated carina, below 
with two or three transverse tuberculated ca- 
rine ; beak very shojt. 

A handsome shell, differing from the last in the blunt- 
ness of the tubercles, which have a less coronated form, 
and in the lesser number of volutions ; it is smooth, ge- 
nerally shining ; the lesser carine are about four, con- 
stant on the lower part of the whorls, but near the mid- 
dle often little better than two elevated striz or even 
quite wanting: the mouth is almost round; the beak is 
very short, if any, but I have seen no perfect specimen. 

The peculiar abundance of this species at Charlton ap- 
pears to claim for it a distinction. Fig. 6 is the whitest 
specimen I have seen, which I gathered there. Miss 
Rashleigh sent me a fine specimen, gathered at South- 
fleet, which is a variety with the smaller bands in conspi- 
cuous risings, and according with a specimen found in 
Clay above the Chalk, at Newhaven, by G. A. Maniell, 
Esq. who also sent me some marked Hamsey. I have 
also found it on the banks of the Croydon canal, near 
the Kent road, among gravel. 

A figure of this Cerithium is given in the second plate 
of Smith’s “ Strata, identified by organized Fossils.” 

payee Fae age. daeiberat Oe hast ove B iad aoa te Sade Tear 

mou ea 

{ate Btaiiion sew eile ne: ie - 

ts ears we ‘mid be whted ‘sti nafte ath 
oy tnd” oat ‘Wie pace ale ar Nines ad : yadnew ablap. 

th gape eatin 5: senkasige shit W dod phurisdn: teituasg od sf ., | cy 

ee, “pesdidey adi ag wet datboeltedly a, if 10% arinte. oy ey | ae | 

ee otdt _ Seveitivg.. 1 doigiey, fee, aan T, (earning 

Ghiat 1a festa, Moriy: wage galt. sgt Sone: Agiitten si ¥ 
~ Tage ai. eb egil atlacg. alt elm- chines o al daider ctaalt 1 
ab brieat Samra qa, = we et: gaihroagut had. hacieis, Rao 
Meine Ab Kev anos alot adh orods yl VG 
atam Bi, yee 2g, sab AOE. at, herds oaley oabyre/: peel: 
‘eee, forns, woh ga of eh) aahand 34h- ice ti-higard abn 

im aes ea Ys Pere st) <b i! aves Bea 1 ey Shoat: ne bape aha 3 % . 
etal pire fst. a chest’) 22d Yaa vege 7% 

Pat ine hd bert wade br haem aie set hae w 



: OSTREA deltoidea. 
Foe nts. Gu V Lins 

Srec. Cuar. Equivalved, flat, thin, orbicular, 
with a deep sinus on one side, and a produced 
straight beak. 

Syn. Ostrea deltoidea. Lamarck Env. de Paris, 

p. 265. 

So flat is this oyster that there is very little room for an 
animal between the shells; the back part is elongated 
with parallel sides for a short space, forming a kind of 
neck terminated by the hinge: the pit of the hinge is of 
equal width withit: the front is rounded and produced on 
one side in alobe which, together with the beak, forms two 
angles of atriangle, and gives the outline the general 
form of the letter D or 4; the shell is thin, the edges 
extend far beyond the interior surface, especially about 
the neck, and make the external outline more orbicular 
than the internal. 

This oyster is a sort of proof of a characteristic con- 
stancy in shape that nothing can contradict, however, we 
might suspect otherwise in so variable a Genus ; thus this 
species is known to all who have once recognized it, 
without any difficulty. The extreme flatness,* even 
when the shell is attached to more gibbous species, were 
it not constant, might be attributed to some pressure, for 
the space that the animal might have occupied seems in- 
sufficient to have allowed of its existence, and the shell 
possessing the usual characters of its tribe, the tripartite 
hinge, the multiplied lateral lamine, &c. we should have 

* Connecting the idea of flatness where there is much variety of colour 

is sometimes more difficult than might be expected, as dark tints gene- 
rally serve fer relief. 


thought could not have exhibited them in so flat a form but by 
some accidental means, suchas growth or pressure betwixt 
two rocks: that either should be so constant or so pre- 
cisely regular, if admitted, would yet become an insur- 
mountable circumstance, as they are found in a soft 
loose Clay on Shotover hill, which consists for the most 
part of an hardish Limestone, where numerous species of 
Shells and animal remains, not compressed, are found, 
but none of these oysters; at least I could not find 
any of the same apparent species among the beds of stone. 
The species is most commonly known at Oxford, &c. as 
Heddington oysters: it is also found near Cambridge. 
Mr. Edward Bridgman found it at Lopham, in Norfolk, 
specimens of which were brought me by the Rev. Mr. 
Lambert. Miss Benett found great variety at Sandfoot 
Castle, near Weymouth, and favoured me with speci 
mens, some of which are deeper than usual. 


GRYPHAA dilatata. 

TAB. CXLIX.---Fig. 1. 

Spre. Cuar. Orbicular, obscurely lobed; upper 
valve flat, lower valve hemispherical. 
Var. 6 distinctly lobed, Fig. 2. 

Snort as the beak of this is, it curves enough in most 
specimens to mark the Genus, besides this, the regular 
concavity of the lower valve and its lobed form are suffi- 
ciently characteristic ; the back of the flat valve in old 
specimens is straight and occupied by the hinge pit, 
which is not curved, and consequently diverges from the 
curved pit in the other valve; the lateral lobe varies, in 
some specimens it is very distinctly defined, in others 
obscure; but it may always be traced; the var. 6 has the 
lobe very strong and produced in both yalves. 

This, and the varieties into which it sports, are not 
rare, itis, therefore, necessary, if possible, to distinguish 
its characters as aspecies. The hinge, at first sight, and 
in a single specimen would appear to be nearly sufficient 
to generalize it, and is certainly of much use, although 
many varieties of different species of oysters have some 
approach to the characters peculiar to Gryphites, such 
as the curved beak and the lobe or sulcus: the great 
breadth and uniform concavity of the deep valve with the 
gaping hinge appear to be the essential characters. 

The upper specimen and some larger varieties, mea~ 
suring eight inches and ahalf diameter, I have had long 
since from Suffolk, by favour of Dr. Sutton. An odd 
variety, very broadly aggregated, with the side lamine 
more extravagant than the one figured, was brought me 
from Pakefield. I have one with many Vermicule and 


part of an Ostrea delta ‘attached to it, from Sandfoot. 
Castle, near Weymouth. The same species is also 
found at Born, in Lincolnshire, where it is called the 
Sickle oyster: at Brambery hill, Brora, in Scotland, of 
a large size; (the latter I have by favour of Mr. Farey;) 
and at the following places: near Broomham, Somerset; 
Rude Cliff, near Osmington; Radipole and Portland, 
like fig. 2; Coney Weston ; Ilminster; near Woburn; 
Farley gate, Gloucestershire ; Bennington, Herts, gene- 
rally of a reddish colour; and with other shells on the 
high range of hills bounding Romney Marsh, in Kent. 

Calne affords varieties of this species: my friend, Thos. 
Meade, Esq. has a fine oval specimen, wide and deeply 
hollowed, from the Clunch Clay bed, 200 feet thick, 
near Calne. The deeper variety is said to characterize 
the Stratum, and is common throughout Somersetshire, 
Wiltshire, Oxfordshire, and Bedfordshire, where they 
are found waterworn. 



TAB. CL.---Fig. 1 and 2. 

Spec. Cuar. Ovato-triangular, slightly transverse ; 
middle elevated by one large acutangular plait ; 
sides with one large and several small plaits 


Tue sinus in the front of this is nearly an equilateral 
triangle, with slightly rounding sides ; the lateral plaits 
are seldom more than two on each side, the first is large, 
sharp, and extends almost to the beak, the others are 
little else than marginal undulations. 

Mr. Richard Taylor, jun. having sent this as found in 
the coarse Limestone of Staunton hill, Gloucestershire, 
and as it is rarely met with, I thought it desirable to see 
a figure, and as I have also received it from my kind 
friend, Mr. Strangwayes, from the coarse Limestone at 
Ilminster, it became the more convenient to publish a 
designation of it, and still further, as I have received the 
same species from France. It suggested its own name, 
by which it may be easily recognized. The British spe- 
cimens that [have seen are much worn. The French 
one is a less transverse variety, also more acute in its 
form, with a straighter front and greater elevation of the 
middle: fig. | is arepresentation of it for comparison. 


TEREBRATULA resupinata. 
TAB. CL.---Fig. 3 and 4. 

Spec. Cuar. Oblong ovate, front depressed by 4 
large rounded plait, sides elevated, rounded : 
lower valve obtusely carinated, with a sharp 
beak and a longitudinal ridge along each side. 

Seuninimmesies cca 

Lexern about one-fourth greater than the width: the 
sinus on the front is rounding in the middle with 
straightish sides; the lower sides of the shell are 
rounded and entire ; the carina of the lower valve is very 
broad and rounded. 

Mr. Strangwayes sent me this from Ilminster, he 
found it in the coarse Limestone: it is remarkable for 
being the reverse of the preceding species or resupinate 
in comparison with it; on which account, although a 
plainer shell without plaits on the edges, it has so general 
a resemblance at first sight, that the two have been laid 
together as the same species. I believe neither are yet 
commonly known; all that I have yet seen have ay 
ochraceous tint, 


CASSIS bicatenatus. 

Spec. Cuar. Ovate, ventricose, with many de- 
pressed transverse ridges, decussated by small 
longitudinal costae towards the upper parts of 
the whorls ; aperture ovate ; left lip obscurely 

Berween each of the ridges is a flat space rather wider 
than the ridge, in the middie of which is an elevated 
line: the coste are most distinct upon the central whorls, 
they give a chain-like appearance to two or three pairs 
of ridges : the aperture is ovate, indented in the upper 
part by the body of the shell; the right lip is thickened 
and crenulated within ; the columella plaited and ex- 
panded into the left lip, which is flat and extended over 
the open umbilicus. 

This prize was found by the Rev. J. Lambert, of 'Tri- 
nity College, in the Crag at Bawdsey, Suffolk. There 
is no doubt of its being a Buccinum of Linn. and a 
Cassis of Lam. Morio of Montft. although the colu- 
mella is plaited. We prefer Cassis, and use it; we 
must confess we have not seen the perfect termination, 
but enough of it is preserved to show what genus it 
belongs to; the dotted outline is added from: Buccinum 
gibbum Linn. which bears a great resemblance to it, as 
does also Buce. bilineatum, see Lister 998; it might 
indeed deserve that term as it is bilineated in some parts. 

This is a curious proof of the antiquity of the forma- 
tion, as it by no means agrees with any of the recent 
shells on our shores as the Murex contrarius tab. 23, and 
Murex striatus, tah. 22, of the same formation, are sup- 
posed by some to do, 

VOL. HI. 7% XX VI) 


Soatie salt, a3 “bapasl vid c hive, wi: susheagen odd : eee 

| hy sae? ant 

‘ ao is. Agito. Agpoli tor “obeRe” sindtho- aiaac ip 
fs DW Bie othe bia rcnes aston OW. botinks wi ol boat . 

ty ate . pe att _ 
Pas. ” hegelenaies 7 
ange volt pene a aoe val 
fy “Ba Halil bi 1 atbbips es 

mike | cunoe wit wong Pvodlat, jedi # me 
wing au 1, ows oy Apion ot Cai 

hy: ie # tale oe riltaale, gt. Wet hed melt of fag, 
) ibs ¢ aleve Dolaluanny, brie 

fo sit wail Rol add oli bak oe 
te avis Mite egos 
: ia bist Hay EPL: worauis ‘ 
+ re 79559 h J. bawon BS¥t aaa, ad 

nes f fe want : wil. i, agelied gis 
wi. 4) pai B.S, Bit No rduub. on te 

“fat Pees 

ORAS dash: nog] at (aor tows byadl ow eaten, taba 
Si Ampang twrly wide ao Bey rseorg a Si to, dawoste Ya 

rwsnivantl eigit babs La ei aig as ¢ hafioh ore ¢ ait eguols a ae 
gt OF Su Pxiteagor sayy & angd Henle ‘aa Sealey” 
aie it SOO: baich, oe jormaonilid 008 nls. eof 
VRE ates of hatnowitid et rT 8s MNS. sods sewweob bashed 
- wish oopht g plinpitas ad, te tony QUOD a Bi aig 
1agag, elt ter jew ier, mors IS 9OK Os qa. it ae ‘note oh 
fy if bi Sint shia ehoo xetabh adlt en aagade Tits «6 tgs 
jo as eiaitn ott be Ie yh enrniase 3 xe it 
ab ot aneie vd hope 

to . utter 


LIMA. Lamarck. 

Gen. Cuar. A longitudinal inequilateral eared bi- 
valve ; hinge cartilage partly external, attached 
to a pit in each valve, placed on diverging 
surfaces between the beaks; beaks distant; 
valves gaping a little laterally. 

Tue peculiar conformation of the hinge of the shells of 
this Genus has caused them to be separated from the 
Ostrez of Linn. or Pectens of late Authors, which they 
resemble in almost every other character, for most of 
them are longitudinally ribbed, and have distinct ears : 
the line of the hinge also is straight and the hinge pit 
triangular ; itis the distance of the beaks from each other 
and the external situation of the cartilage that dis- 
tinguishes them: there is also a degreeof obliquity in the 
valves that forms a natural character. The Generic 
name is taken from a specific one of Linneus’s, and is 
applicable to most of the species, particularly the known 
recent ones, all of which are decorated by deflected 

laming much resembling arasp to the touch. 


LIMA gibbosa. 

Spec. Cuar. Elongated, gibbose, smooth, longi- 
tudinally plicated in the middle ; ears undefined. 

Syn. uster 495. ? 
Walcot f. 22. ? 

Re Nali/s 5 ed 

N ranty twice as long as wide, slightly oblique, in the 
middle about 18 small sharp plaits without any scales or 
even roughness. The ears are hardly worthy of that 
name as they are only expansions of the sides from the 
ends of thehinge line: the depth is greatest near the com- 
mencement of the beaks, where it almost equals the 
width. I have some doubts about the propriety of calling 
this a Lima; the form of the hinge corresponds, but the> 
want or imperfection of the ears and the valves not gaping 
are objections ; there are, however, some recent species 
of the Genus, which nearly resemble it in these parti-- 
’ Cotswold hills, Gloucestershire, and Taunton afforded 
this to Mr. Richard Taylor, jun. with a small Isocardia 
of Lam. and other shells in coarse Limestone with 
granulz like the small Oolite of Bath, &c. and I believe 
the species has been found near Bath, but has not been 
understood: I presume it will soon be better known. 
Some of this Genus, at first sight, appear like Pla- 
giostoma, but by careful examination may be distin- 
guished by the thickness of the shell in the hinge, and the 
presence of the hinge-pit, both of which are readily seen 
i my specimen. 


UNIO crassissimus. 

Spec. Cuar. Ovate, transversely undulated or im- 
bricated; beak recurved, acute; posterior 
side short, round; anterior side obscurely 
subcuneiform ; shell very thick. 


Tue hollow below the beaks is deep in consequence of 
the beaks being much incurved towards the posterior side ; 
the cartilage slope is rounding and the front nearly 
straight: length two-thirds of the width. The shell is 
convex outside and in thickness equal to the internal 
depth; the hinge is particularly massive. 

Mr. Wood having figured Mya crassa as a thick shell 
in tab. 20 of his General Conchology, I must now 
use the superlative degree of the word to this Mya 
of Linn. but Unio of later authors, and thus, in some 
measure, designate the species. I have had the speci- 
mens by me for some years, favoured by Dr. Sutton, of 
Norwich, and was pleased to find sufficient of the hinge 
to determine the Genus, which has puzzled Mr. Park- 
inson, who has, not without doubting, made it a Donax. 
This Gentleman observes they are usual in Gloucester- 
shire and Wiltshire, near Bath, sometimes in the Lias 
Clay. Dr. Sutton gave me many specimens of Fossil 
shells as British, without localities, among which are 
several of this species, all formed of Carbonate of Lime : 
upon opening one of the pairs the hinge was found con- 
cealed among equiaxed crystallizations (British Mine- 
ralogy tab 13) beautifully showing the manner of modi- 
fication, &e. 


The imbricated surface and great thickness of this spe- 
cies seems at first to place it at a distance from others of 
the Genus, but there are many, both recent and fossil, 
to associate with it, and perhaps some of the characters 
may hereafter become Generic distinctions. I show a 
few more of this family on the next plate to make them 
more familiar: their external characters are sufficient to 
connect them, although we cannot always separate the 
valves as we have done in the present specimen. 


UNIO Listeri. | \ 
TAB. CLIV.—Fig. 1, 3, and 4. 

Spec. Cuar. Cordate, transversely imbricated, 
beak recurved, acute; posterior side small ; 
middle flattish ; shell thick. 

fs fr : mone 

ue front of this species is sharper or more wedge- 
shaped than is usual in shells of this Genus ; neither the 
posterior side nor the cartilage slope are so round as in 
Unio crassissimus: the breadth is but very little greater 
than the length. 

This always puts me in mind of Lister’s “ Musculus 
fluviatilis @ fuvio Thamesi ad Battersea” tab. 184, and the 
varieties of Unio ovata in part corresponding with his fi- 
gure and which I find occasionally at the same place, 
wherefore I have named it after him. Fig. 1 was sent 
me from Durham, as found in that neighbourhood some 
years since in Clayey Limestone: it accords much with 
some smaller mutilated specimens from Suffolk, by favour 
of Dawson Turner, Esq. and from an etching by fayour 
of Mr. Richard Taylor, it appears to be found in Roydon 
gravel pit, near Diss, in Norfolk, rather more perfect and 
plentiful : but if the same species they differ a little in the 
state of preservation, being apparently less smooth, and 
formed of a lighter coloured Carbonate of Lime. 
‘The specimens, fig. 3 and 4, are from Scarborough ; 
the smallest is a young shell before it has acquired its 
cordate form, from my friend Mr. Strangewayes, who 
found several specimens there; the other I bought of a 
dealer from thence. Perhaps this is the “ thick ovate 
shell, a little depressed, found at Malton and Seamer 
quarries, in length two inches and a half, in breadth three 
inches ;’? mentioned in Scarborough Fossils, p. 103, 
where it is put under the Genus Tellina. 


I figure these on a presumption that they may lead to 
information, should any one find them and determine that 
they belong to the Genus Unio or otherwise ; as far as I 
yet know, specimens exposing the inner construction 
haye not been found. 

UNIO hybrida. 
TAB. CLIV.---Fig 2. 
Spec. Cuar. Oblong, ovate, anterior side sub- 

acuminate ; surface imbricated; beaks re- 
curved, acute ; shell thick. 


Tus differs from the recent Unio oyatus principally in 

the largely imbricated surface and thickness of the shel] 

with the acute beaks; breadth about twice the length. 
The specimen figured is from Nottinghamshire, 


VENUS. Linn. 

Gen. Coir. An equivalved rather inequilateral 
bivalve with three hinge teeth in each valve, 
converging towards the beaks ; ligament ex- 
ternal, placed upon the anterior slope. 

EE ee 

Tue shells of this Genus have generally a cordate im- 
pression under the beaks, and their form is more or less 
orbicular or transversely oblong; their edges are often 
crenate; the shell smooth and ornamented with various 
elevations, mostly running in a transverse direction, 
while the colours that so frequently enliven their surfaces 
are placed longitudinally, zigzag, or irregularly, so to 
produce great beauty and much pleasing variety: the 
anterior side is generally more or less defined by anangle 
or the abrupt termination of the transverse ornaments. 
The Genus Venus as defined by Lamarck is dis- 
tinguished from other shells which Linneus included 
under the same head, by Linneus’s own character, the 
number and position of the teeth in the hinge; in confor- 
mity with this I found it necessary to form the Genus 
Astarte of such shells as have only two teeth in each valve. 
Other shells of the Linnean Genus Venus are arranged 
by Lamarck under his new Genus Cytherea, and dis- 
tinguished by an additional tooth separated from the rest 
and placed under the lunula or posterior slope. But as 
there is no other difference, he seems himself to doubt the 
propriety of the separation, and I am unwilling to adopt 
it because the additional tooth is sometimes very small 
and seldom possesses the regularity of the other teeth. I 
have figured already two species of genuine Venus, lineolata 
and plana tab. 20. [have also figured two others as of this 
Genus, V. equalis and angulata, tab. 11 and G5, but they, 
together with Venus [slandica, which they muchresemble, 
differ from Lamarck’s character in the disposition of the 
teeth under the beak, and possess in one valve, besides 
them, a lamellar elongated tooth within the anterior 
side; these may, perhaps, hereafter form a good Genus. 

od ¥ YY 
NAY & 


VENUS incrassata. 
CYTHEREA. Lamarck. 
TAB. CLYV.---Fig. 1 and 2. 

Sprc. Cuar. Orbicular, oblique, subdepressed, 

- smooth ; posterior slope straightish ; lunula 

large, obscure ; edge entire; a conical tooth 
under the lunula. - 

Suri very thick, the anterior slope concave, holding the liga- 
ment ; the central tooth of the hinge thick and blunt, but not 
bifid ; the detached conical tooth which would make it a Cy- 
therea, is small, but sharp, opposed to a corresponding hollow 
in the opposite valve: the lines of growth are fine, and very 
numerous near the edge. 

I received this some time since from the Rev. Mr. Lremonger, 
from Brackenhurst, in the New Forest, Hampshire; it is suffi- 
ciently distinct from any other that I know. The specimen is 
very entire, and the two shells were so perfectly locked toge- 
ther by the narrow hinge tooth, between the two most adjacent 
ones in the opposite valve, that it broke in separating them. 
The gloss, in some measure, remains both outside and within, 
the former was apparently brown when fresh, the latter white ; 
both are now stained with grey streaks and blotches. The spe- 
cimens seem to have lain in a loose earth. I shonid suppose if 
the place were searched it would afford some well preserved 
reliquiz. . 

: VENUS gibbosa. 
TAB. CLV.---Fig. 3 and 4. 

Spec. Cuan. Orbicular, gibbous, with many trans- 
verse rug ; lunula large and short ; edge sub- 
crenulated ; hinge rather large. 

Venvs rugosa is something like this, but that is shorter and 
less gibbous and has a much smaller lunula: its hinge also is 
much smaller: both have rudiments of a tooth under the lunula 
in each valve, but without corresponding impressions. 

I have only received one specimen of this shell, some few 
years since, from Suffolk, and I consider it a variety. The 
present active spirit of research will in due time prove if it be 
more common than I expect. It is in a tender chalky state, 
and I conceive it proper to secure it as f think it is sufficiently 
distinguished to be recognized by moderate specimens. Its 
outer coat, withthe ruge, which it seems once to have been 
ornamented with, has split away: I cannot, therefore, say 
whether they were like those of V. rugosa or not. 


CARDIUM proboscideum. 
TAB. CLVI.---Fig. 1. 

Srec. Caar. Suborbicular, gibbous ; anterior side 
straight, about 20 longitudinal rows of large 
canaliculated spines, with two rows of lesser 
ones between each cover the surface. 


Tins corresponds in form with Cardium ciliatum, but 
the disposition of the rows of spines is altogether dif- 
ferent and the shell is thicker: a few of the last formed 
thorns on the posterior side are very large and clumsy, 
and serve to relieve the elegant proportion of the others. 

This elegant shell very rarely remains so finely re- 
placed and in so extraordinary a manner as this specimen 
in semitransparent calcedony, covered by Cachalong, 
becoming transparent when wet and more opaque when 
dry. Iam favoured with it by Miss Hill, from Black- 
down, near Cullumpton, Devonshire. The larger 
doubled aculei are elegantly cast and with extreme 
neatness, as well as the two smaller rows, making 
generally three sets of aculei, and distinguishing it 
from any recent species: a few of the aculei are 
widened in an extraordinary manner, but they appear 
as if they were so in the original or recent state of 
the shell. It may be expected that the Lime of the shell 
has been carried away with the acting fluid that held the 
Caicedonic matter in solution to fill the space by some 
chemical means, with which we are as yet unacquainted. 
What information we may gain on this point by means of 
our new apparatus, we know not. The sand in which 


this action has taken place is of an hard or harsh gritty 
feel, with particles of Mica ; the whole more or less con- 
creted. These and other shells I have, and shall occa- 
sionally show are very abundant in it, all in a silicized 


CARDIUM umbonatum. 
TAB. CLVL.---Fig.-2, 3, and 4. 

Spec. Cuar. Orbicular, gibbous, nearly equilate- 
ral, longitudinally striated and obscurely cos- 
tated; anterior edge concaye, and angular 

LLeneru and breadth three-fourths of an inch; the 
costz are so little elevated that the edge is nearly entire, 
but the margin is strongly toothed within; the anterior 
side is separated by a concavity, so that the upper angle 
of it forms a sort of boss; it was formerly thought to be 
the young of our common Cockle, Cardium edule; the 
evenness of the contour and the concavity around the 
anterior side will, E trust, always distinguish it, with 
very little difficulty. 

Also from Blackdown and silicized: very neat speci- 
mens frequently occur. Fig. 4 shows an accidental canal 
of which there are slight vestiges in several specimens. 



Spec. Cuan. Depressed; inner whorls partly ex- 
posed ; radii numerous, undulated ; edge flat, 
bounded by two rows of tubercles in the in- 
terior whorls ; a few tubercles occur upon the 
sides of the inner whorls: aperture ovato- 

Taz radii are irregularly furcate, and more or less 
obscure about the middle of the sides: the tubercles on 
the interior whorls extend over the ends. of two radii, 
but on the external whorls they are little more than 
swellings of the ends of the radii: the greatest diameter 
is about twice the length of the aperture and four times 
the thickness. 

There is a peculiar elegance in this species that makes 
us regret its rarity, and the little chance we conse- 
quently have of seeing the exterior. The double row of 
button-like protuberances on either side the flattened 
outer edge, shewing the place of the siphuncle in the 
center, gives an appearance similar to that of some other 
species. The fine sharpness of the sinuated edges of the 
septa is beautiful. It has protuberating vermicule-like 
risings about it which interrupt the distinction of the 
whorls :—or are they stalagmitical droppings of pyrites ? 
It is partly chalky on the outside, perhaps owing to the 
decomposition of the calcareous shell; the rest is pyri- 
taceous except a little marle. It is from the forest or 
fen clay which runs through England from Weymouth 
to the wash of Lincolnshire, and was found by John and 
Philip Duncan, Esqrs. after whom I am pleased that it 
is named, at St. Neotts, Huntingdonshire. 

VOL. 1. 79/7 

ei ie iba: “Ath, he seidiay, galt werey eee 


i i” als atk stinattiie: val na 

oie é ‘tie: jeorat oie, cx wi >, inte: seid” & fy ty, eeraget 

rie ees Rig peat th 
a eee 1 eblhiet, “ald 

Salt, ign: afaik, erie etl aba Ua ad 
Bi sr ay aed ols: tae at pw ales de we 

; ‘ ‘eke ‘ah peer ia, si ‘sn si ia a shed 
Smee Su sare olhnt ‘ lay taint at ret 

duane ‘bt rahi ait wie ey ade ssl me 

duet via pane dali 36, Lavcdone oa biter via 
0S Sai ela ieee Heiietidahoty ee bitin we 
ee ya cools ately ah apivtied ab aden Te art ist: 
f dda We, apalijgonly Fist gyal te ees Gin Wake : redid 
ead, af elbrtul wipredlneey ‘yelled vey! vol ik Seay re 
oS iebiegg a ston ber gla: nriasilasinny itt Lae _aith ings sby 

‘ehipodeee: FE an Bavetiga’ z Hewes hiee'g. Avaholng eneky at. 
J heteade h ua hasnlt igpn Tlie belo: "i is ches te adthiad = 

| oe buch obalig. tid, B. chal a nha, Aap eo iow sia. Bah, 

staan i aces ae cies ‘oul 


ih a 

PECTEN Beaveri. 

Spec. Cuar. Depressed, orbicular, smooth, with 
irregular longitudinal coste ; ears as wide as 
the shell, nearly equal. 

> Ea 

Tae cost vary in size and distance in the same shell, 
and there are between the principal ones now and then a 
small one or two: the shell is thin. 

Among many specimens [ have not seen so perfect an 
example to identify the species as this, lent me from 
the Oxford Museum, to which Mr. Beaver presented it ; 
it is from the Rev. Mr. Beaver’s quarry at Childrey, 
near Wantage, Berkshire. I take advantage of the 
opportunity thus allowed me of publishing the spe- 
cies; at the same time I beg leave of my friends and 
correspondents to say, that I shall still be glad of infor- 
mation or specimens, as it is very irregular in some of 
its characters, and the outside is as yet but imperfectly 
known. Ihave specimens of the same from Hamsey, 
Sussex, which Mr. Mantell kindly sent me, that identify 
a similar stratum (Chalk marl), but the shells being more 
mutilated and smaller, may indicate something relating 
to its age. 

The upper figure is from an impression of the shell 
taken in clay ; I have been able to seperate a portion of 
the shell from a Hamsey specimen, sufticient to shew that 
' it is smooth: this figure, therefore, exhibits the outside: 
the lower figure shews the inside of the shell which 
adheres by its outside to the stone, or rather hard marley 
chalk, in which it lies. There are a few spots of pyrites 
about it. 

UF geet: wore Soe wll, 08 \ ahaiae ie 
mee Santersnicing savteg 8h a ebaudbie oF eveit hs V 
ware Mi aerebtinD: a6 yeti nia eal AM x wa oath 
Lhe aa ‘onl qe ‘agatenely tin aidan) “ala dase 
ae. es  pesidbeibaiegs, Yo oy. batalla’ ends oghiees 
cor eae ) i baw phat mone Nae fa igak ‘pid FE enh Sener aele® ‘% + aaa 
aE eT ee eta i boli wk thie Nisde se ne ot elite aoqhoatya 
Ris tae ys Sy guebaee ote altar Geri ae EE eis aeeseteloag eye, nhgabanagy 
Rit ei: Joreaeadgnsd died ig a8 a aN: oi | Borba satis 
ok ‘Heat Sink 40 Ae ddietetooga ged E. 
PLY ie A — weyit i CAR get? ehbvakis isso Me She oie F + 
CO Sn etaemsaentind iio dal Hed Pease Mag) areapiiehe sthiccth 
Mts zqeriaint oe 2 asides Pare hve ‘haw srobalia xe 
wan site i ‘9 cade: cig magia ei é ova nigga wl: ai 
aie oe iii tion.” Horwrdqse of, slalty heed ernst ig paky at iis) 
a all eran Ot hala ke yrogil dag wan qtnll a ort [sith Sil, 
ON Sebitatina oat eunlidia? prituwads joringit eidlt + too, abs 
Co Rt Bide oth 00) Siitemd Sale aaradic) dest git. sae “at 
yatmier ‘Wels! dotnet 18 ened adi ‘of ‘ghvietrte ated ih = 
eae aon pecs baad ae she col Sod bi alin be a 



Gen. Cuar. A transverse equivalved bivalve, su- 
perior margin arched, sides slightly gaping ; 
hinge with two approximating teeth in each 
valve, and an external cartilage. 

ee ee 

Tus genus forms a link connecting Solen with Tellina; 
it contains shells whose hinge is analogous to that of 
some Solens, but in general form they differ much, re- 
sembling Tellina in their flatness and rounded margin, 
but are generally wider. They have been happily se- 
lected from among the Solens of Linneus by Lamarcke. 

Spec. Cuar. Depressed, transversely elongate, 
ovate, and striated; anterior side gradually 
expanded ; posterior side very small. 

So ee 

Leneru equal to three and a half times its width; the 
lines of growth form fine sharpish strie ; the beak is 
minute, from it a slight depression extends towards the 
anterior side: the shell is thin. 

_ This was gathered at Bricklesome Bay by the friendly 
Mr. Holloway, whose name I feel pleased to com- 
memorate, four or five years since: although it is 
rather an abundant species it is rare to find one indivi- 
dual at all perfect: the pair figured here are held toge- 
ther by green sand ; they are brittle: one shell is perfect, 
the other has been partly broken away so as to shew the 
hinge, and but little more is seen: it will readily be re- 
cognized if found again, and is at any rate a valuable 
addition to the*catalogue of British fossil shells. 

uth Diser ; | ; balan one 

he \ nh a a ao oft ‘ane nes aut i oa ‘nin to 

RL mite ‘se acing whale ‘Hoieeyeqols itigitet es ae 
; ie i poi sey net ae lhe oak btn lean 
Whe bint sa ae idk Rae er | ig beiodtog, ehue- eit ii 
io Soe a boswoley fasit, L. ecetinas svelte: » iho okes- gl 
id Pe Mean | ote deyaonitla ys sage. amy, ‘ant 99 oh altomage | 
mae iia BRA bait on att Bh SE: hk lh Seedy enuveb, ‘gee anthee 
me HEE hidd tan auth, hingdph ony Bi gett sdoiltaag Up, ta tne 

3 | fasten ry tiga ast.) okie aay + ay pinion pile ae : 
aS Wis . La Hees bes 1 os Awe nado W) fas ! on 


gece lati Fi eo oa a (a reine sii eG | 
SER A ca «Man ic nen 


Gen. Cuar. An equivalved subequilateral trans- 
verse bivalve, gaping at the sides ; a ligament 
placed in a pit between the teeth of the hinge 
within the beaks ; two elongated lateral teeth 
in each valve. 

Serer eae aah 

Mosr of the shells of this genus are free from striz or - 

other ornament; their form approaches to transversely 

oval; some are very flat, others are gibbose, and many 
have but a slight opening at the sides when the valves 
are closed: the lamellar lateral teeth of one valve are 
inserted into long grooves bounded on the inner side by 
plaits or lamellar teeth in the other: in several species 
both these teeth and the grooves are finely striated ina 
perpendicular direction. 

Lamarck has confined his genus Mactra to such spe- 
cies of the Linnean Genus as have prominent lateral 

teeth ; the remainder form the genera Crassatella and 

MACTRA arcuata. 
TAB. CLX.---Fig. 1 and 6. 

Spec. Cuar. Ovate, smooth, back and anterior 
margin arched; shell of an uniform thickness ; 
posterior side smallest ; hinge narrow. 

{28 pe! 

Toenern equal to about four-fifths of the width : the lines 

of growth are strongly marked: it differs from Mactra 

solida in the narrowness of the hinge and the irregularity 
of the sides. The lateral teeth are striated. 
Mrs. Cobbold sent me these fine specimens from the 

Wolywell Crag pits in 1813: they had been compared 

with and received the name of Mactra solida of Linn. 


MACTRA dubia. 
TAB. CLX.---Figs. 2, 3, and 4. 

Spec. Cuar. Ovato-triangular, transversely elon- 
gated, smooth, thickened towards the margin, 
sides equal. 

Tours is between M. solida and stultorum ; it differs from 
the last only in being wider and thickened towards the 
edge: the lines of growth are conspicuous, and more par- 
ticularly so when the surface has been corroded, a cir- 
cumstance generally observable in bivalve Crag shells.* 

I received a specimen of this species nearly as large as 
the last, by favour of Dawson Turner, Esy. but broken ; 
I therefore figure smaller but more perfect specimens 
received since from the Rev. G. R. Leathes. I have had 
the same, smaller still, from Mrs. Cobbold at Ipswich, 
and from Woodbridge. 

MACTRA ovyalis. 
TAB. CLX.---Fig: 5. 
Spec. Cuar. Oval, equilateral, smooth ; thickness 
Toenarn about three-fourths of the width: its regular 

oval form distinguishes it: it is also rather deeper than 

M. stultorum. ; 
A Crag shell, sent me from Suffolk by Dawson Turner 

and W. J. Hooker, Ksqrs. 

MACTRA cuneata. 
TAB. CLX.---Fig. 7. 
Sprc. Cuar. Ovate, smooth, depressed towards the 
front, anterior margin acutangular. 

Nidee but little more than half the width ; the anterior 

side is largest and angular. 
These are from Bramerton-hill near Norwich, found 

by my late friend Charles Wilkinson, Esq. 

¥ Nothiug shews the necessity of nicety in description more than the 
difficulty of discriminating the recent from the diluvian or antediluvian 
species: the accordance in tine outside when worn, in most of these species 
and of Pennant’s figures, has conveyed an idea of all being the same. 


Gen. Cuar. An equivalved inequilateral bivalve, 
more or less transversely ovate, with the ante- 
rior side irregularly bent: hinge slender, with 
two or three diverging teeth, and one or two 
elongated lateral ones. 


Liamarcr’s principal distinction of this Genus is the 
bend or waving of the anterior side of the shell, and the 
lateral tooth or teeth. The individuals are mostly slender, 
compressed, smooth or striated, and white or elegantly 
painted; there is something in their general contour, 
partly produced hy the above-mentioned bend, although 
in some species it is very slight, that indicates the Genus 
they belong to, and an inspection of the hinge soon de- 
termines it, for thereis an apparent nakedness about it 
arising from the slenderness and simplicity of its parts, 
that makes it easily distinguishable. The cartilage is 

TELLINA obliqua. 
TAB. CLXI.— Fig. 1. 

Spec. Cuar. Nearly orbicular, convex, oblique, 
smooth ; anterior side slightly defined by a 
longitudinal wave. 

Tue length and breadth are nearly equal ; the depth of 
each valve is about one-sixth of the diameter ; the ante- 
rior side is the smallest: the lines of growth are irregular, 

but rather sharply marked, and the spaces between them 
are rather elevated. 

~ Z) 


This species is common in the Crag of Norfolk, Suf- 
folk, &c.; the large specimen. fig. 1, was among many 
by favour of the Rev. G. R. Leathes, from Suffolk: the 
smaller one beneath, from Aldborough, sent me by the Rev. 
J. Lambert, is of themoreusualsize. Dhavehad pairs from 
Ipswich, sent me by Mrs. Cobbold, who finds them fine, of 
all sizes, and varying in colour. Messrs. Turner and 
Hooker have also favoured me with specimens of this 
species among some varieties of the following: they vary 
a little in general form. 

TELLINA ovata. 
TAB. CLXI.—Fig. 2. 
Spec. Cuar. Ovate, convex, smooth, equilateral, 
with a slight wave upon the anterior. 


Breaprs one-sixth greater than the length; the lines of 
growth are sharply cut and very irregular; the spaces 
between them generally flat. 

This is less circular than the last, and is found varying 
in size and colour, depending, like the others, on the 
quantity of oxyde of Iron in the bed in which they are 
situated. 'They are found at Framlingham and Bramer- 
ton, and in various parts of Suffolk. 

CYCLAS. Bruguiere. 

Gen. Cuar. An equivalved inequilateral bivalve, 
more or less transverse, with the anterior side 
even: hinge strong, with two or three di- 
verging teeth and one or two elongated ones : 
cartilage external. 


Ay intermediate Genus between Venus and Tellina; 
it has the general form of Venus, with the lateral tooth 
or teeth of Tellina, from which, however, it differs, in 
being straight and less slender. The species do not pre- 
sent much variety of ornament, either in form or colour, 
and in most of them there is no lunula, and the edges are 
entire: several of the recent ones have a strong epidermis. 

Venus Islandiea of Linn. is a Cyclas of Bruguiere; 
this, and one or two analogous fossil shells, which I have 
published as of the Genus Venus,* I still suspect may 
form a new Genus distinguished by the hinge. 

CYCLAS deperdita ? 
TAB. CLXII. — Fig. 1. 

Spec. Cuar. Ovato-transverse, rather gibbous, 
umbonate ; lines of growth elevated, irre- 
gular: central hinge teeth three, lateral ones 

Sxn. Cyclas deperdita. Lam. Env. de Paris 252. 

Park. Org. rem. 3. 189 2 

Tue form is a short oval, rarely a little angular towards 
the anterior side: two of the central teeth of the hinge 
are slightly bifid: the lateral ones sometimes finely 
striated perpendicularly, as in several others of the 

This is a common species at Charlton, along with the 
two following, and two or three species of Cerithia, 
forming together a stratum several feet in thickness, in 

¥* See the Generic character of Venus, p. 125. 
+ Ihave a large species from China that shows the strix very strongly. 


which there is a mixture of black Clay: it lies between 
strata of ochraceous Clay and gravel, over a bed of white 
sand about an hundred feet deep, that rests wpon Chalk. 
Some shells contain enough of the animal matter to give 
them consistency, and have a shining surface: I have one 
pair in which the cartilage of the hinge remains, others 
are chalky and moulder between the fingers. The same 
species occurs in sand at Plumstead, of all sizes, even to 

I suppose Parkinson considers it the same as the fol- 
lowing species, which he figures as C. deperdita of La- 
marck, butistooangular toanswer Lamarck’s description : 
nothaving seen the French shell T am still in doubt. 

CYCLAS ecuneiformis. 
TAB. CLXII.—Fig. 2 and 3. 

Spec. Cuar. ‘Transversely cuneato-ovate, gibbous, 
lines of growth numerous, fine ; central hinge 
teeth three ; lateral ones two. 

Syn. C. deperdita. Park. Org. rem. 3. 189.2, 13-925. 

"Ine only difference between this and the last is the an- 
gular form of the anterior side, and the greater width. 

I have many specimens of this, both from Charlton 
and Plumstead; it has also been found at New-cross, 
near Deptford. All the specimens agree precisely with 
Parkinson’s figure, above quoted. 

CYCLAS obovata. 
TAB. E€LXII.—Fie. 4, 5, and 6. 

Sprc Cuar. Obovate, gibbous, anterior side ob- 
tuse ; beaks large ; central hinge teeth three ; 
lateral ones two. 

Tue equality of the length and breadth distinguish this 
shell: the lines of growth are rather strong, but irre- 
gular ; it rarely exceeds three quarters of an inchin length. 
The Clay of Barton Cliff is plentifully supplied with 
this Cyclas: I have received it from thence by favour of 
the Rev. W. Bingley, Iremonger, &c. and I have found 
a variety, exhibited in the larger figure, at New-cross. 



Gen. Cuar. An univalve ovate or oblong pyra- 
midal shell with an elevated spire ; aperture 
oblong, entire, contracted above with united 
lips ; columella plaited, independently of the 
decurrent attachment* of the outer lip. 

Iw general, shells that have plaited columella have 
also beaked, or at least notched, apertures. The 
Genus Auricula has been established to receive such 
as form an exception to this rule, and are not tur- 
reted, having entire mouths and plaits on their colu- 
melle; Bruguiere had separated them from the 
Volute of Linn. together with others that had no 
plaits, and formed the Genus Bulimus from which 
Lamarck has judiciously separated them. The spire 
seldom equals in length the last volution ; Lamarck 
observes, that the species are mostly inhabitants of 
rivers; they are often decorated with various 

colours, are polished and transversely striated. 

* Inthe Genus Lymnea a plait is formed on the columella by this 
part of the outer lip. 

vot. 11.72. 19/7. 1? XKIX. 

ral} ” Ath A, i, ted 7 
OR Noun NE 
et oh ae Pd we 
ie Uist aE i Mie 
vi rie ha ated 
eae tek WU 
re) Pie a PPh 
Wey Ata at see N Oy 
‘ Pe 4 > 3 1) i. q 
Saar on E Melon eee 7i 
eR a Pal co het Why ; 
a Pak ~» os be 
fi iW bdetAr arc wc 
"ay ee ‘She ty 
eens. : 
i ap) dal eal 
vag re | “ ,* J 
ic ‘ igualon 
Cee ai ual 
be ” 
opal ee 
’ ey Paik hte | ; easter: ne . ee 
+ Pe ee 2h) ; a) 
Pies Als 5 ae ee leiaale vey s. (7 St See 
6 £4 sa et = \..” “as 

ah eae ae sib 
eer uy ee 
hy Peat gimedhs ake HPD font © 
anaes domm-ovigone ca ats « ! ton. . ws 
eet osc dose suai slit ot nniyabas-ag’ sien 
i c “thio Fao Ee) sat ih eal dtsore sith es! ; 
2 ion ena bokecogys fied Te, 

Aes A Cpihs +53 fe er Lic Ae ae 
0a at dant enti: der — taskl Yo diode we 
Sate “foiaker mort aun WD Haid adi Agaast bas. ig, 
od). stebeg at! titeat a, dhvoinibu} anil doomed, ‘2 

hams - Horiboedl 5 p nolthlow jeal ‘wb dhs cat: caters at a i, 

io abitatid oii “howd dia paldode Sat ait! Medusa 

| sivoinaiy shiive belavagab a b> 89: wo, a xed som 
i . G Sts t ne 


i Vat al 




Tlsint moet 1° Benn 

£48 ¥ ’ = Tel igs # Re og Sue, hos Ss Lanois fet 
- - a“ Kd 3s: rf y 
id Lg a aivape: tai ne ighh'a 
ae ve TARE ae 4 ‘ BS? 
seas he ¥-aaes % y en abadn ‘ sor Age as 
; f dei SEN 7 
ze rn 
meee é A, 
= ' 1 4 
“4 - ‘ \ 
A rs oh, ; ad fa) 
és nt py 
fs ad ) 
nt rN, i NaS 
ina u 
; v Lid 
+ * | 
nae C1 EN 

AURICULA incrassata. 
TAB. CLXIII.—Fig. 1, 2, and 3. 

Spec. Cuar. Ovate, ventricose, transversely sul- 
cated, longitudinally striated ; spire short; 
mouth angular above, with very thick lips ; 
columella three plaited. 

Syn. A.ringens. Parkinson iii. 84. p. 5. f.4. but 

not of Lamarck. 

‘W uey full grown this is about half an inch long, and 
two-thirds as wide; the outer lip is then much thickened 
for a considerable way back upon the last whorl, and this 
thickened part is marked by numerous lines of growth in 
place of the regular sulci; while the shell is young the 
lip is only slightly reflected at the edge. The longitu- 
dinal striz only appear within the furrows, where they 
are elevated and sharp, dividing them into minute oblong 
rectangular cells, see fig. 3. 

Miss EK. Hill having presented me with both young and 
old shells of this species from Blackdown, and Mr. De 
France having also forwarded to mea valuable collection 
of shells from the neighbourhood of Paris, containing 
Lamarck’s A. ringens, I am enabled to point out the in- 
correctness of Parkinson’s reference; independently of 
the general form and difference of size ; the want of striz 
within the outer lip, and the presence of longitudinai 
striz upon the surface distinguish the British shell. 

AURICULA turgida. 
TAB. CLXITI.—Fig. 4. 

Spec. Car. Ovate-acute, turgid, transversely 
striated, shining; spire short, acute ; aper- 
ture oblong, with thickened lips; columella 
two plaited; outer lip smooth within, thickest 
in the middle. 

A minute glossy shell, rather more than a line long, 

varying in the thickness of its lips with its age. The 
spire is not quite so long as the mouth, which is con- 


tracted in the middle by the thickened lip and the plaits 
upon the columella : the strie are at a small distance from 
each other, and hollow without interruption. 

So great is the resemblance of this to Lamarck’s A. 
ringens that had he not mentioned the strie within the 
lip, I might have overlooked the distinguishing character, 
although the French shell is double the size—a minute 
comparison also shews that A. ringens has rather a 
longer and more acute spire. A. turgida is the produce 
of the blue Clay of Highgate in which it sometimes ad-~ 
heres to the masses of indurated marl, &c. 

AURICULA simulata. 
TAB. CLXIII.—Figs. 5 tos. 

Spec. Cuar. Oval, pointed, with close transversé 
laterally toothed costa ; whorls slightly ventri- 
cose ; mouth angular above ; outer lip sharp, 
striated within; two broad plaits upon the 

Syn. Bulla simulata. Brander 61. 

Neaarty three-fourths of an inch long. There is a si- 
nus in the lower part of the outer lip before it reaches the 
columella: the two plaits upon the columella are very 
prominent and laterally compressed ; they are more or 
less oblique in different individuals. The coste are 
small, flattish, and almost close to each other : the teeth 
upon the sides are minute, those in one rib being placed 
opposite those in the next form a series of elongated ovate 
hollows, as is represented at fig. 5. 

Several of my friends have presented me with this from 
Barton Cliff. I possess also various specimens from 
Highgate ; in one of these the outer lip is thickened and 
erenulated within, but as the shell had been broken just 
at the part, and has grown again, that may have arisen 
from the accident. Brander certainly meant the same 
shell, but his figure is too long: the name he has given it 

implies its resemblance in form to some species of Buc- 


AMMONITES fimbriatus. 

Srec. Cuar. Discoid; volutions cylindrical, inter- 
nal ones exposed; lines of growth undulated, 

and in some parts fimbriated ; mouth orbicular. 


Ty should appear from what remains in the specimen 
figured, that the mouth in a full grown shell, is fur- 
nished with an undulated reflected lip or ruffle, and the © 
more or less perfect formation of this at various periods, 
produces either undulating lines of growth, some of 
which are obtuse and others acute, or thin annular fim- 
briz, surrounding the volutions at certain intervals: the 
obtuse lines of growth are indented at their backs, but 
straight towards the mouth, and indicate that the undu- 
lation of the lip is strongest at the back of it. The 
whorls do not appear to have been very numerous ; the 
shellis thin, and the margins of the septa have rounded 

I could not refrain from publishing this curious Am- 
monite, although the fragment, for the loan of which I am 
indebted to the Rev. W. Buckland, is apparently so im- 
perfect ; however, it exhibits every essential character: 

itis from the Blue Lyas, at Lyme Regis, Dorsetshire. 

ise ‘o a eapengaa sage 
ek et ng kg 
: F Tee oo Sr Acree 
Boh, a tg oft ay gif, Baby on 
«alvin, aiaclon tm ait To aadtnemac she e 
Los: Fao esi ol esailt eujtotubed ie: e90 | 
~ : i 9 a abisiceen il, 1% esta bra bisa saigifo atl dbaker | ae 
ia Mand sane A adolyslo'e at quibiiap aie 
Me ee ~ Ineb-eedaent wad: a: boteesbaie, oan dy. axm, besa a 
Sot aN eh vn BE iat adgti 
ty, a “Hh Ne tows sdk ‘Sm seyndiia sei ot te svi 
a ail “neo sini ears se oii af seh ont 2 of ad 
bala sal atqae adh te guest itt baat sd ai Shed) 


: red Ws We, ist sizhoiteh Wah ico AONE eek tile ps 
: A sg + nea Mog ee eet gan eho oh! “aon tae aeSiniy we} 
eee) a whobaieg wh aa wi oe blu 
fa Bak aye neat ads tah F 
Sant es ele ‘ab © 3 ie * , die 
vitfaet XL vied aie tothe eal | 
ket, Talon ya a4 td BE, SOM OM 
ai ontlatdenet eran si ja nie a es 
is ty o y a \ 4 My . ~~ 


AMMONITES vertebralis. 

Spec. Cuar. Discoid, radiated, and carinated ; 
inner volutions partly concealed ; radii promi- 
nent, numerous, tuberculated in the middle, then 
furcate, with a tubercle upon each branch ; 
carina serrato-tuberculate ; aperture orbicular. 


A very handsome shell whose radii are a little undu- 
lated, and together with the tubercles upon them, are 
sharpish and compressed ; they are very regularly fur- 
cate, and each branch has a tubercle about its middle, 
then passes on in an elegant curve to the carina, where 
it forms another somewhat reflected tubercle—the two 
branches again unite on the other side. The thickness 
is about equal to one-third of the diameter. 

The Rev. W. Buckland has enabled me to exhibit this 
with his usual fondness for science ; he informs me that 
it is found at Dry Sandford and Marcham, two adjoining 
villages on the N. W. of Abingdon, Berkshire, where 
it lies in silicious sandy beds, that contain subordinate 
Strata of a gritty Limestone, composed of small Quartz 
pebbles, sand, and shelly fragments, united by a calca- 
reous cement. 

I have not seen the outside of the shell, but from the 
space between the whorls in the cast, I suppose it must 
have been thick. It is named vertebralis from the re- 
semblance of the carina to the vertebral processes in some 

| «ie lanl dees vibe @ iekh hdted isa 

oy Senate tlthealeoks: Mig tid K Yo FF oilt ae. . galtt 
 arsaliviodin miata talk absd inne enolsifie ai 4 
. — ny te spe ws <scotehiail baat # te 

fait i amociirt Lda sift ak wbiodteadly 
: et Ye! bas ema vito baa oak ‘oat ta: 

ibe lb 2 ia, ih smn 
* oie anette taloioday, olf dite hkomot 
fee alah 

uae ianttes Sts piiintys iclabet 

aan “Nata oi tar oe inode «i 
0 ali state oF come BvSlehaies ent haobdonG » W oa ery Ma 

‘\ Inalls ond adesuetend ait: Ceo cab nn ah 
gaan ek bed hk Was cea feeds PY 

ot A srt dad et sas ern He pes | 4 ae a 

~og ‘aah ean 

Ne ‘bomen ee: tad aah i Fy 


AMMONITES plicatilis. 


Spec. Cuar. Discoid, radiated; sides flat; front 
round, plain in the centre ; volutions exposed ; 
radii numerous, equal, straight, furcate ; 
aperture squarish, with rounded angles. 

Tue radii on this Ammonite, from their straightness, 
closeness, and regularity, have much the appearance of 
artificial plaiting or crimping; they do not branch until 
they begin to turn over the front, in the centre of which 
they are nearly obliterated; they are sometimes simple 
and less frequently trifid. The septa are acutely si- 
nuated. The thickness is about one-fourth the diameter: 
the aperture is somewhat longer than wide. 

A sandy Stratum, containing beds of sandy Limestone, 
at Dry Sandford and Marcham, N. W. of Abingdon, pro- 
duces this shell ; I am indebted for the use of the speci- 
men figured, to the Rev. William Buckland. Several 
other Ammonites occur in the same Stratum, among 
them is A. concavus of tab. 105*: most of them have 
lost the shell; the present is only a cast of the inside, it 
has a few crystals of Carbonate of Lime about it. 

* The inside casts of this are so well preserved, with regard to the Sinu- 
osities, that ] was almost induced to add a fresh figure of it from some 

elegant specimens lent me by the Rev. W. Buckland. 

ae eae pea ies cui eBaiqanios 10 gnisinig (niod 
aiden To. otiten oft ab-dooit od? wave wit: oF digad yndt, 
PE ur eseeunpenphinkostipeegencsc yy i) 
Gi / de Yahiom ota, ongge od T fit yliaorpait ast den 
es ay pret em aemtine neta ea We leodieeres 
ee  aobeiee: rial, sorgaral taebre seine ourtyien get 
es pre Nees a bind gainintivos axutente inten he. 
Bin ie “01g wobgaid sh. to WO GisdoiiM bar Broth wae “ 
A Yo aur deli hofdahad ove TE ; Made ait aoouh — 
Kaela: Secetatoih. cislliW, vo adh ot hompe pai He 
Ute |g gkeveaie attain sani ‘adh, th HPO. watinoanan A wadio ae 
_ovad modt Io dana : SOOT ait to, marrage. A, a sides 
Oar eee ‘ dhieni sult Yo teas a lite aly ; . 
Rea ays eo: “1 Sued ai 16 stn 

uggs CSEENEy leas eo abl em na 
ge te ee " ont i eaten 
Pie 7 Ne 4 ‘ 4 ; 
a ih Bey indy? oe ake 
‘: is. ale en ms i, 1 
\ gs ae 0 Eee 

AMMONITES obtusus. 

Spec. Cuar. Discoid, radiated; inner whorls ex- 
posed ; front with two slight furrows and an 
obtuse keel; radii large, curved, sharpest in 

the middle ; aperture oblong. 

Tue large undulations or radii are equal in number to 
the septa, each crossing the inner lobes of one septum ; 
they are very prominent in the middle, but are lost after 
winding towards the front: the keel is rounded, not much 
elevated, and the hollows on the sides of it are very 
trifling. There are about four whorls; the aperture is 
longer than wide, equalling one-third the diameter of the 
shell. Ihave some suspicion that the external surface of 
the shell is concentrically striated, but the specimens I 
have seen have only a small portion of it remaining. 

I am indebted to the kindness of Miss Philpot, of Lin- 
ley, for the use of the larger specimen, which, from the 
high polish and rich colour of the crystallized Carbonate 
of Iron that has lined its chambers, is truly beautiful. 

The one I have taken my section from was sent me by my 

friend Strangeways, Esq. They are both from 

Lyme, in Dorsetshire. 

“ob wodeaun al tod ote a tia 10:  enwialoce osrel an] Te ee 
; uaa, 2it0 to eadol wun att) ghigaors doa er = " an 
tote teak one Bud olboig at ai Nvpittriy vue eal ee 
arent jor. Salrsigo: wk Dat odd: | 4 ibn | 
VRE: ditts HE Do, ashia ad uo awolfod ot ute oe 
a ad ayustanga ofS § gebvodw xy. nuile. one anolD gait 
its i * ils Yo ‘vatocaih ont bridt-one wrillanpe shin naith vagaet 
ei. leaondture iamntzs dy Yael aot rieyeare any ‘ava FE Hoda . 

Meu & anomnioe ott dud botareie Ullsoistasanios 6i ede ad 

x hs 18 eae geist $b Yo, Holhiog Haviee-i vlao ova oan Sad ie - 

1 hi Yo touiltt eal to, ceaahaid ads of boylebni ma ha 
of ncort dboidve _haininega gual ad), Yo outs ody wit ao! 

oS stmetbdlag bosilfittoyss alt ter visalon dois bue Haifog dai. 

idtisanad ina a at wrodmnds ry, heuill ‘and: ‘indi. vom fa. | = 

a) ead vd out ‘oi wai. oct aatiane Yaw tated avant E 240 Mk ae 7 , 


is aiont hod an yet it atawagannne mae “a Mery ed” 
rm _ a a7 ie 
ie , " Dee i he Wh é eee F : deta a oa | 
PA) «ee 3 ; Le he Se Sy 
j a 
J ~ ‘? t A 
fie 7 is fi 
vt ‘ ) 
‘ ‘ er a aa ‘ 
ian : ir at a 1 a. x , 
> My n » , 4 T - 
ut ov i e Wi < ~ a r 7) ; 
, ais , cj a A Ny , 4 
" Py - Aras 
batty . «OR etic inhale 
Vika Hee We, Coe Pan Le ey | tea 4 as 
ts oa ae ve oo» ie ee ae q eae ik woe, y 


HAMITES armatus. 

Srec. Cuar. Flatted; undulations simple, every 
second or third armed with a large thick spine 

on each side near the front. 

Besives the two spines upon every third undulation, 
there are two obscure tubercles near the back upon the 
same ring, the intermediate undulations are less risen, 
and are almost lost upon the back; the section is ellip- 

This large and remarkable Hamite was found in Chalk 
Marl at Roak village, near Benson, Oxfordshire, and 
sent me for publication by the Rev. William Buckland. 
It is extraordinary, more from the spines or thorns it is 
beset with than from its size, although this much exceeds 
that usually attained by species of the same Genus in 
England. The spines are three-eighths of an inch long, 
being one-third the length of the section at the largest 
end of the shell. The specimen is a cast stained with 
iron, it has not preserved any indications of the septa. 

The specimens next in size at present known, are 
found in the Chalk marl of Sussex, but still more muti- 
lated: we hope to give good specimens ere long. It would 

be an acquisition to find one perfect at the ends—such not 
having been seen. 


a naeps dred et vom gots wodul : orrgedo ows, ote ood 


oil edt sneedl' winiv) Gocgaltie’ sR 30) FOAM 

: cgrtol doi aslo edtd gis-adial ave sonije sd'E bnekgelt.” 

ae a ik of 
. ! PPA i 

oatintidbee Silt ists: ‘macger i iadeke aus ‘ail saa by ' 

agin’ aeol i awoitulo itis atribseraini odd ait. ate os 
—_ ak anibnye, ons : Aad 8 waite Soot snacete oth on 
; - Init 

Mad ai Bain aw atinialt atdadreinat hil signet ait’? 

| bentdaot msi volt oda ed agiteoiidvg rot aut dade, : 
“et H aerad? 10) anaign oof trait oveeep. ysaibueniye- eo 

\ sacks nidt dyvadile oxiaesi covt and) drtw loud ey, oy 
ai auqek) onto. ods lo: eaitaga yd hauistia: qilanaw pide yi Pi 

_eowial silt Sa woltdon 36k to digaol add fyidt-sno gaied 
Aieelvetinie tedo # ai doprivega oT Made, oft Yo bao.’ 
cage eal to aoitavitiak ws, haviomsig jon ott Mf stor 
X% ewond tenseotng iQ ike ae: ixaa andigivog? oft’ 
-ihwat eront [lita iad, eed to (ess, Aad’ oe ab bade 
* higew HE gual so eanadasqp hud Seig of squad ort: olay - 
fou dati ebas adi 16 weet sta nail sahrielispos, on 
ige ayod ome 

acs NG ay) 




Gen. Cuar. An oblong subturreted univalve ; the 
aperture entire, longer than wide ; lower part 
of the right lip entering the aperture, and 
forming a very oblique plait along it. 

J ee Helix stagnalis of Linneus, is Lamarck’s type of 
this Genus, and upon a comparison of this with the 
Helix pomatia, the propriety of their separation is im- 
mediately visible. The Lymnea is an elongated pointed 
shell; in general it is smooth, tender, and has to boast 
of very little variety of colour: the recent species are 
known inhabitants of fresh water pools or rivers, and the 
few fossil ones hitherto met with belong, exclusively, to 
the newest depositions. 

The thinness and semi-transparency or horny aspect of 
the shells of this; and many other fresh water Genera, is 
a great help towards distinguishing the fresh water for- 
mations from those of the salt water. 

LYMN A fusiformis. 
TAB. CLXIX.—Fig. 2 and 3. 

Srec. Cuar. Subfusiform, smooth; sides of the 
spire nearly straight ; aperture narrow, half 
the length of the shell. 


T nz narrowness of the mouth of this makes the two ends 

almost equally taper; the spire is pointed ; the strie of 

erowth are tolerably sharp, between them the surface is 
VOL... /{/7% BY XKA 


smooth and shining, without any transverse striz, such as 
are upon Lymnea stagnalis. It differs from Lamarck’s 
Lymneus longiscatus, and I believe from all other species 
in the flatness of its whorls, or rather the straightness of 
the sides of its spire ; it is also shorter than L. longiscatus. 

This shell is the produce of one of the fresh water de- 
positions on the Isle of Wight; it was collected by the 
Rev. Mr. Iremonger, and sent me along with Planorbis 
euomphalus, tab. 140. 

LYMN AA minima. 
TAB. CLXIX.— Fig. 1. 

Spec. Cuar. Elongated, smooth ; volutions rather 
convex ; aperture less than half the length of 
the shell, ovate ; last whorl not ventricose. 


A sma shell, only three or four lines long, nearly 
related to L. longiscatus but shorter. 

It is probable that this may be the young of some other 
species ; it occurs with a minute Patella along with the 
shell above described. 


HELIX globosus. 

Spec. Cuar. Globose, slightly elongated, obscurely 
transversely striated; whorls but gradually 
increasing in size; outer lip reflected. 


From the gradual increase in size of the whoris, the last of 
which is not remarkably larger than the preceding, joined 
to the slight convexity of their exposed parts, the shell 
assumes a globose aspect although it is not strictly sphe- 
rical. The young ones are rather depressed, and have 
an umbilicus ; the old ones are slightly elongated, and 
have the umbilicus concealed by the expansion of the inner 
lip. ‘The lines of growth are distinctly marked: the 
transverse strie irregular, numerous, hollow, and so su- 
perficial, that they are only to be seen in the best pre- 
served specimens. 

Specimens of this shell were presented to me by John 
Holloway, Esq. who found them at Shalcombe, on the 
Isle of Wight, where it is of rare occurrence. From its 
exact resemblance in generic characters to the Helix 
pomatia, it must be considered like it, to be a land snail, 
and should seem to have been accidentally imbedded with 
the water shells in the calcareous (now stoney accumula- 
tion) that has preserved them, and often filled their inte- 
riors: the shell has been replaced by crystallized Carbonate 
of Lime. I have been favoured with specimens of the 
Genus Phasianella in the same state of preservation, 
from the same rock. The rock is a compact Limestone, 
breaking with a smooth conchoidal fracture, and contains 
but a few fragments of shells; it is much harder than 
chalk, or even Portland stone, but softer than the Pur- 
beck stone or mountain Limestone. 

_ noltromatios yatiote wou} ano4t89 
2 wovad vids bolt aoito baa mod borisiong # 

geht te ntioaniagee aT hivistoral asad ave 1 ern § 
, aulsartoentd -10° ateie, 90889. ‘ail i altonnteoitl atti) ON 

pK TEOO basi Gorton Lebioan09 flfoone & sbtive : 
cads vabinl dowet af SP: jaitede Yo: aatesihiyatt 1 

ialbitin fend ps od, nie 
driw bobbedgi, pita 

: sisnodinD bonittarays9 4d haowsleet steal wait ad sad’ 

euptaonih Josepsivos 9 ai door od ee Boot sae? ofl 

“ak Radics teflo fund a « 


HELIX ? striatus, 
TAB. CLKXI.—fig. 1, . 
Spec. Cuar. Conical, depressed, subcarinated, 
obliquely striated, a rising band around the 
edge, crossed by arched strie ; columella solid, 
aperture subtriangular. 


Tver isa great resemblance about the base of this 
shell to the genus Trochus, given it by the prominent co- 
lumella ; in other respects it strongly resembles Helix 
carinatus, (see tab. 10.*) from which it differs in not hav- 
ingan umbilicus, in the greater distance and sharpness of 
its strie, and the strong arched striz upon the band. 

From the Limestone of Derbyshire, collected by Mar- 
tin ; the place of the shell is occupied by granular Carbo- 
nate of Lime, and the inside filled with grey Limestone. 
Had not the general form strongly resembled the 
Helix above mentioned, I might have been induced 
to have placed this as a Trochus, although it does not 
precisely accord with the characters of that genus. I 
might have formed a new genus of the two, to which the 
following species should have been added, did they not 
differ materially from each other in the characters that 
should distinguish it. Besides the aperture is very im- 
perfect in them all. Itis probable that other species may 
be found, and that by their help and that of more perfect 
specimens, the genera they belong to may be determined, 
or the characters of new ones ascertained, and this is the 
more desirable as they appear from their localities to be 
marine inhabitants, rather than land shells. 

* In the description of this the striz are said to be transverse instead 
of oblique by mistake, and the striz upon the lower part have escaped 


HELIX? Cirriformis. 
TAB. CLXXI.— Fig. 2. 

Spec. Cuar. Conical, acute, umbilicate, decus- 
sato-striated ; with a band around the middle 
of the whorl crossed with arched strie ; aper- 
ture nearly round. 

A smaux space upon the upper part of each whorl is 
flattened, the remainder is very round, bearing upon the 
middle of it a broad band, strongly marked with lunate 
strie ; the decussating strie upon the other parts are 
small, and most distinct above the band. ‘The rounded 
volutions which touch each other only in a small part of 
their surface, the aperture being nearly round, and rather 
wider than long, together with the conical form of the 
spire, give this a great resemblance to Cirrus acutus, tab. 
141; but the umbilicus does not appear large enough to 
authorize our placing it under the same Genus ; I there- 
fore leave it for the present along with a shell to which 
it has as great an affinity. 

I received this along with the last from Mr. Martin ; 
itis from the same Limestone ; there is within it part of 
an Encrinus. 



Spec. Cuar. Discoid, gibbose, with many small 
radii; inner volutions exposed ; radii flatted, 
with two compressed tubercles upon each ; 
aperture large, nearly round. 


Berween the two concentric rows of tubercles the shell 
is slightly flatted, otherwise the form of the mouth would 
be round, with a small sinus produced by the preceding 
whorl. The whorls are few, and increase rapidly in 
thickness as they proceed towards the mouth. The nu- 
merous radiating ridges are compressed, so as to be as 
wide as thespaces between them, and at the insertion of the 
outer tubercle are commonly split into two, that unite 
_ on the opposite side: a few of the radii proceed from the 
centre over the front without tubercles. 

Lyme Regis, in Dorsetshire, is a place that has pro- 
duced many fine petrifactions peculiar to the blue Lyas ; 
the present is among the number that have fallen into the 
deserving hands of the Rev. Mr. Buckland. It was found 
upon an estate belonging to H. H. Henley, Esq. of Sand- 
ringham, near Lynn; in kind remembrance of whom it 
has been named by Mr. Buckland. Its external surface, 
concamerations, and siphuncle, have not been preserved ; 

the specimen is only a cast in Lyas, with some crystallized 
Tron Pyrites in two or three parts. 

| hh 
th ‘Sin 


Sead J aaleeeeoek 000 mr hy 

v oA A oie Cag, ait 

Be sie 1 Yi hema a ite 

i oe ie pe 
Le ign Saito Oe ee 
| rr sicirtine tenonad werangead? wa inivgiies’ 
odin fat, dwi oth dike chacanay, i, qeynedus. 2 2M lel 

owls ‘abso ih a 1 1 tas opiaotiangyy sdm aol)” ke 

7, Heat we ashi gf-s0 xv nue od an 
ah ong agil “pt cotig’s i “atidalowd it eile satyd: 
‘ 5 earl out aod ialladeg divols a atiniacy’ snl atest peowh + 
8 dety Ode maltatl ave Hedi Neddialt od geo: 9 salar ie 
Sy wee 14 lea hen ca Sy aah ay Sedan 
-nabelanpial yolask. A oh gnigeaisd whetne fe wogy 
ti inoue Yo soumdarsragy ‘hav boar : rvs 3 isa nui gain 
one lneesta ak, bjpattoe® aM eo Bennie aad & 
: bavrsanieg: “Ipod Jom pred! sei uitgte fine atolt #TeAMU EO 
eS, boaillateesa autos ain sph al sip, 2 Yloeel ugsainade ds, 

4 —o . athineg oon 0. owt ci 
bs . 
a = * . 
~ oe ¥ za i 
A ae a | 
pe f * 
= : ' 
LP nk 7 \. 
ae wc % 


AMMONITES rostratus. 

~Seec. Cuar. Depressed, carinated, tuberculated; 
tubercles three or four upon each radius, 
largest towards the front; volutions exposed ; 
aperture elliptical, with a compressed reflected 


Tue aperture, exclusive of the beak, is somewhat less 
than a third of the diameter of the shell long ; the beak 
is a little reflected and flattened, the edges of it so pressed 
together, as nearly to close it: the tubercles are more 
divided upon the inner whorls than upon the outer ones, 
where they begin to run into one another, and form 
ridges that are curved forwards, towards a prominent in- 
sulated keel : volutions about four. 

So remarkable is the beaked mouth of this Ammonite, 
that I have named it from that character. The figure is 
taken from a specimen lent me with a valuable collection 
of the same Genus by the Rev. Mr. Buckland; it was 
found in Chalk Marl at Roak Village, near Benson, Ox- 
fordshire. ‘The terminal chamber or that in which the 
animal is supposed to have resided, being preserved 
entire, renders the specimen particularly valuable, as it 
is commonly broken off. 


F ot saad ssa ane’ * ss | 
Haad odd "whol ode ait) ‘Yo xtacunib act | ees 
hes 0a lo.eagho old, casita lis st fis 
pom 91a. egiondud ‘ont 24%, seals. ob lowes am ieiltag 
{eno oto a nog wnt soot vaani 8% weg Bobiv aes 
ant bis bas rwibdons ano’ atai dit ot aigad (edd gagda Pee 

(aaa ‘elnerwes webaswrot bara ots inal} enghie ; ‘eat 
uaiiaahs®* UbSe ok -saiot suode anoitator : food baseline: ‘ome 

“noktgstlos aldeulay a diiw one toal sdmioaqe # mort aoded 

x0 soe wee opalli¥ sooSk ba | ‘esl ai bavat 

* dbicioanned eid te ddutsest bodeed oat ai aldnasonts OB) any 
eh stigdl oT ‘astoeiads deals ior it heat avedl T tet. , 

daw di ; hasikont Ne “WORT: asl wd auaaid onnee adt io © 

“et dois wi wine 10 wine iaeresan viel Eizomm r 

dé ‘ts oldlanisy sible ie a vale ad é wy ane Ou 

Bo onal 

oe ; 
- * * - eat 
bets Selian 
; on 
hy ee 
‘ ues ‘ 
} i 
y at 
; cat ' wg 
: N ‘ 
5 IAs . 
M a 
‘ i 
A _ 
| ts y 
* ‘ ps) 
f . g are, wy 
oft “— oper 


CHAMA | digitata. 

Spec. Cuar. Palmate, slightly recurved, gibbose, 
with five or six marginal elongated canalicu-~ 
lated processes ; surface smooth. 

Tins is an oblique elongated curved shell, with several 
ridges upon the deeper valve, that are drawn out at the 
margin into finger-like processes, which are concave be- 
neath, and some of them slightly expanded towards 
their ends. ‘The attached valve is unknown. 

We are to thank the zeal of our friend, the Rey. Mr. 
Buckiand, for communicating this curious species : casts 
of it very neatly formed, are contained in masses of po- 
rous flinty Chert; the space formerly occupied is some- 
times partially filled with brown Oxide of Iron or 
Calcedony. The casts of the inside are often hollow, and 
lined with quartz crystals. 

The texture of the stone, and partial union of the two 
sides of the casts to each other, have rendered it impos- 
sible to expose the whole outline of the shell. I have 
given figures of four specimens that illustrate each other ; 
the two upper ones exhibit the claws (if I may so call the 
marginal processes) ; one of them (fig 1.) is a cast of the 
external surface: the other (fig. 2.) (which has been acci- 
dentally reversed by the engraver) shews a greater 
elongation of the processes, and a hollow with quartz 
crystals; the lower figures are from two varieties, a 
broad shallow one and a narrow very deep one ;* the 
claws of these have been completely entangled in the 

* Such varieties often occur in shells of this Genus, as well as among 


stone, but they display enough of the hinge to prove that 
it has one elongated irregular tooth: one of them (fig. 
3.) shews the concentric lines of a single muscular im- 
pression very neatly ; but I am unable to trace indications 
of two upon either of them to make their generic cha- 
racter complete. Three of the specimens have conside- 
rable portions of stone attached to them; as they would 
render the shells less conspicuous I have omitted them 
in the figures, which, even now, are not so perfect as 
might have been desired ; but experience teaches us that 
we must depend much upon such specimens for our know- 
ledge in geology, and rest satisfied when they are perfect 
enough for us to trace the identity of species. 

Long Comb Girts, in the parish of Sudbury, near 
Sidmouth, where these specimens were found, is the only 
spot, I am informed of, that produces this species. 

The attached valves have not been met with; they 
have probably been left adhering to the rocks from which 
the others were washed, previously to their being depo- 
sitedin the situation we now find them preserved in. 


PHASIANELLA. Lamarck,  Phasianus, 

Gren. Cuan. An oblong subturreted pointed uni- 
valve ; aperture entire, longer than wide ; left 
lip sharp; right lip reflect d over the last 
whorl ; a longitudinal ridge upon the columella. 


A. Genus instituted by Lamarck ; it is distinguished 
from his Lymneza by the thick edge of the right lip not 
entering the mouth, but reposing upon the body of the 
shell. In general, also, the whorls are more equal than 
in that Genus, and the shell is thicker, opaque, and va- 

The recent species inhabit the shores of islands in the 
neighbourhood of New Holland. 

PHASIANELLA orbicularis. 
TAB. CLXXV.—Fig. 1. 

Spec. Cuar. Conical, acute, smooth; whorls 
about six, ventricose ; aperture nearly round. 

Tins is nearly related to the Genus Vivipara, but the 
spire is too much elevated and too acute; it is marked 
with lines of growth, and the smaller whorls have a few 
obscure transverse lines upon them. There is apparently 
an open umbilicus ; but if the shell were full grown or 
perfect, it would probably be covered, as it is, but narrow. 

I have referred to this species of Phasianella in the de- 
scription of Helix globosus, tab. 170, along with which 

VOL. Il. 


it occurs in Limestone, at Shalcomb, on the Isle of 
Wight. I am also indebted to the liberality of the same 
friend to science John Holloway, Esq. for the specimens. 

PHASIANELLA angulosa. 
TAB. CLXXV.— Fig. 2. 

Spec. Coar. Conical, smooth; whorls subcari- 
nated ; aperture nearly round. 


"Tins differs from the last only in the angular form of the 
lower part of each whorl, which makes the sides of the 
spire straighter. 

From Shaleomb, along with the last. 

TAB. CLXXV.—Fig. 3. 

Spec. Cuar. Elongated, smooth ; volutions five 
or six, obscurely squared ; aperture oblong. 


Sines two lines long; the flatness of the upper parts 
of the whorls, which separates them from each other, is 
not easily overlooked. 

From the Isle of Wight. The figure on the left is a 
magnified representation. 


AMMONITES varians. 

Spec. Cuar. Depressed, thickish, carinated, with 
a row of large tubercles near the front, and 
one or two rows of tubercles placed upon fur- 
cate radiating undulations; inner whorls half 
concealed ; aperture roundish. 


No Ammonite is more variable than this in the strength 
of the undulation, and proportion of the tubercles ; still, 
however, it may be known by the large turbercles near 
the front (these are sometinies flatted obliquely) and two 
lesser ones upon each radius near the commencement of 
it, the inner of which is generally smallest, and at times 
even obscure, or united to the other. The whorls are 
seldom more than three: the keel is much relieved, and 
entire. The length and breadth of the aperture are about 
equal to each other, and one-third the diameter of the 

So frequently are the casts of this handsome shell dis- 
torted, as if by the compression of the chalk, while in a 
soft state, of which they are composed, that specimens 
have often been exhibited in proof of the existence of el- 
liptical Ammonites ; but a series may easily be obtained, 
some individuals of which are circular; others com- 
pressed obliquely, and in such various directions, as to 
evince the effect of accident. The lower or hard chalk 
is well characterized by this fossil, as it contains it in 


abundance. Some of the specimens figured are from 
Wiltshire, others from Sussex. I am _ indebted to 
many friends for varieties from the former county: 
G. A. Mantell, Esq. has kindly communicated a good 
suite from Hamsey, Plumpton, and other parts of the 
south of Sussex. 

AMMONITES inflatus. 

Spec. Cuar. Depressed, radiated, carinated ; 
sides and front flattish ; inner whorls exposed ; 
the latter whorl inflated near the aperture ; 
radii commencing with a tubercle, then fur- 
cated; keel distinct, entire ; aperture square. 

'W nerurer this is a distorted cast may remain a question, 
as it does not appear to be fractured in any part; its ellip- 
tical form leads to suspicion. The sudden increase of the 
last volution near the end, and subsequent contraction, 
is a curious circumstance, if it be constant, and it can 
hardly be the effect of pressure in any direction. The 
undulations or rather radii are large, commencing with 
a compressed tubercle, then furcate, one of the branches 
being sometimes divided from the other, ending in elon- 
gated compressed knobs upon the front. 

A castin the green sand of the under cliffin the Isle-of 
Wight, lent me by the Rev. William Buckland; the 
lower figure is a fore-shortened view of the same 

a a Y a 

a ] SIG & XX / 
ib dP, tC} [FIV AA, 
1éé/ é ¥ £4 

AMMONITES rusticus. 


Spec. Cuar. Depressed; whorls few, gibbose, 
exposed ; with 6 or 8 conical tubercles upon 
the sides of each, and two rows of obtuse tu- 
bercles around the front ; aperture wider than 


W norts about three: the bases of the larger tubercles 
almost touch each other, and they expand nearly across 
the whorl; the front of the whorl is very broad and 
flattish ; the tubercles upon it are numerous, and but 
little elevated. Aperture quadrangular: the inner side 
concave, and much shorter than the others. 

A heavy clumsy shell, well characterized by its few 
large knobs, and broad front: it is a rare production of 
the lower chalk, at Comb Pyne, near Lyme, in Dorset- 

shire, and was lent me by the Rey. William Buckland. 

nh 8 ah | re 

RN, i Ln whe +) ie Ne , ets 

ies 7 | ao ig “a a) 
ee, ‘ ‘ pets > 
Pat w, wh ; 
Bt i “tag, sobradiat fasicips a ne ie, ; banangh °; 

Afi er ; ‘ wh oanida, Ww, aton oie ‘Hoh 3 , 
i i 0 aa Hobive ‘wablogi'* 24a ‘ait tietworts asta aah 

ae ‘S : te ot pial i ‘ Cnet nie ie Hoge mi shih, il fcuk we ub anne a he i ‘ R a , f 
Ne BLA, AE Smee ANEW RE a 
wre | | 0 J i ty it eat "he ny Ma ot Hate) ab wre | vege te ‘ity iz. Me 

‘t C . } “! | ‘% I ‘ ae | i tie 1 ag ot ts Ky hash, mI We Ms bh i ry \ : 7 he ri a ve sal ¥ ae } 
: ; ; nen 7 mu ‘be ene i Ly a Oe il: i + 4 ‘ nue . . 
0 CR i raceeriectipr jh i i Hk iy i: 
on | i iy lita write outage tod sien wy a 
a vl i, ‘i nt xs We Per ay th f\ hie ; iM hy woe yi ‘i ah ly _ : A 
Waa ike ant hacyes. igual Sh dpa du 

Raa ee as bred gets a raat od ey fd mk oh. «hid 
ii) " : ne “hd ali wires ta i “tiga ibe wait ai ii re a 

a Waal eelet Ra ably Me ; 
» ohios vised ah nalqas shen nro) bot al > 

i ; he eee ie nis en ii waa su ho ove 
| | i il : 2 qo, Ceaa nha 
for aotadiivg ab tahoe ad dn a a a 
, * pero ob tt ek 1190 ame’h dai, te allada spwst lt 6 
ie Meath eit vrai aitt er da eine bata oti a 


ASTARTE plana. 
TAB. CLXXIX.—Fig. 2. 

Spec. Cuar. Nearly orbicular, depressed; sur- 
face plain; lunette elongated, acute, deep ; 
margin entire. 


Very analagous in general form to A.Scotica ; and when 

the softer parts between the lamina have been corroded, the 
surface presents numerous concentric ridges ; otherwise, 
itis only marked with fine lines of growth. The shell is 
thick, equilateral, with a pointed beak, and entire mar- 
gin; its length does not always bear the same proportion 
to the width, sometimes being equal to it, but oftener less. 

Occurs in a sandy alluvial stratum, at Bramerton, near 
Norwich, where I collected specimens in August, 1817. 

‘ASTARTE obliquata. 
TAB. CLXXIX.—Fig. 3. 

Spec. Cuan, Obovate, transverse depressed ; with 
many eblique concentric striz upon the sur- 
face ; margin crenulated. 


- "Tae numerous regular impressed strie which cross the 

few lines, or rather waves of growth at a very acute 

angle, give rise to the name of this elegant shell; its 
width is greater than its length ; it is somewhat depressed 

and slenderer than most of the Genus : the spaces between 
the strie are rounded and smooth. 

My active correspondent, Mrs. Cobbold, discovered 
this shell in the Crag pits at Holywells, near Ipswich, 
and indulged me with specimens in 1812: they are in a 
good state of preservation. 


ASTARTE lineata. 
TAB. CLXXIX.—Fig. 1. 

Spec. Cuar. Obovate, transvere, depressed, 
slightly truncated ; with a few concentric acute 
ridges, and many minute intervening strie 
upon the surface ; lunette lanceolate, small ; 
margin entire. 


Auwnosrt lenticular; the anterior side is smallest and 
truncated : the slope upon which the cartilage lies is long 
and straight ; the shell is thin, about an inch wide, and 
has nearly thirty prominent sharp lines or ridges. 

It is with some hesitation that I give this as an Astarte, 
not having seen the hinge teeth it is probable that it will 
prove to bea Lucina. The only specimen known is filled 
with granular iron pyrites, and so liable to decompose, 
that I would not risk losing the opportunity of figuring it 
granted me by the Rey. Mr. Buckland : it was found in 
the selenite bed, in the Heddington Clay, near Oxford. 

TELLINA obtusa. 

TAB. CLXXIX.—Fig. 4. 

Spec. Cuar. Transversely ovate, convex, con- 
centrically striated ; margin obtuse ; sides very 


Tur wave upon the anterior side that distinguishes the 

Genus Tellina, is very slight in this. The surface is most 
rapidly curved near the edge, which being obtusely oval, 
the whole has a blunt clumsy appearance; the striz are 
concave, wide, and numerous. The anterior side is much 
the smallest. Young shells are flatter and less rounded 
towards the margin. 

My friend, the Rev. P. Lathbury, first sent me this 
species of Tellina, from the Crag near Woodinidao; 

about twenty years ago: I have since received it from 

Roydon, by favour of the Rev. G. R. Leathes, and have 

found it at Bramerton in abundance. 

eth aces huis teri ecruittod FT -voSh oils bastd it bat 
‘ eubirdbooW seam git od ‘cot <Attlle® Yo asinsqe 
“uot ti bovinvor souie grad oye wweay yaowd ivode 
“ored bun othe 5D crash aisto wort rob eo 

| "on ose 2a a 

2 rs 4 
‘ ye , L 
PY ; " pi 4 , a Phy vt ~ ft 
. 5 j : r ¢ he 4 
i « i . anv 
- : , ra ; phd : bd “9 ie 
< aay rk - my 
x 5 
2 i 
‘ al.’ 
’ oe 
as J 
» ‘ rd) 
iy ¢ oh { 
Rey ‘ aids, } y: oi 
Ah i. > (od . & — 
bah : ‘TKaIT = a 
yh - - ‘ vs 7 
Vee ee!) 

Cee. 3 

NUCULA. Lamarck. 

Gen. Cuar. An equivalved inequilateral bivalve ; 
hinge with two interlocking rows of small teeth 
in each valve, diverging from a space within 
the beaks ; beaks conniving, turned back. 

Toisnevs’s Arca nucleus is the type of this Genus, which 
is well distinguished from other Arce by the disposition 
of the small interlocking teeth; several of the species have 
a concave space or tooth between the two rows of teeth, 
but as itis not constant to all the species naturally allied 
to the Genus Lamarck has omitted it in the generic cha- 
racter given in his Mémoire sur les fossiles des environs 

de Paris. 

NUCULA Cobboldiz. 
TAB. CLXXX.—Fig. 2. 

Spec. Cuar. 'Transverely obovate, convex; sur- 
face marked with zigzag furrows, diverging 
over the sides; edge entire. 


4 posterior side is very short ; the space between the 
rows of teeth is elongated, and very concave ; the inner 
surface is decorated with a coat of pearl; the outer sur- 
face is ornamented with numerous slight furrows, which 
are zigzag over the middle, and thence diverge on each 
side towards the front: it varies in gibbosity. 

I have met with three varieties of this ; the first a small 
gibbose one, was sent me from Holywells, by Mrs. Cob- 
bold ; a second, almost orbicular, was lent me by the 


Rev. G. R. Leathes, who obtained it at Roydon; the 
third, and most regular one, I picked up at Bramerton, 
itis the one figured, and is very tender. 

Being desirous of commemorating Mrs. Cobbold, whose 
copious collection obtained with great industry, incompany 
with several of the junior branches of her family, whom she 
delighted to inspire with a love for the works of Nature, 
from the Crag pits of her own estate, evinces a degree of 
taste and zeal seldom met with ; I have named this rare; 
and withal elegant shell after her. 


NUCULA Ianceolata. 
TAB. CLXXX.—Fig. 1. 

Spec. Cuar. Transversely ovato-lanceolate, smooth ; 
posterior side pointed, edge entire ; a concave 
deltoid space in the hinge. 


Sines nearly equal, the anterior being rather the largest 
is most rounded ; the shell is strong, and of almost equal 
thickness throughout, the beaks projecting but slightly - 
length half the width. 

This curious Nucula was discovered by the Rev. G. R. 
Leathes, at Bawdsey, Suffolk, in Crag ; the line of the 
hinge is broken, but not much bent ; nevertheless it has 
the genuine characters of Nucula. It appears to be very 

TROCHUS levigatus. 
TABOR WRE re to 

Spec. Cuar, Conical, nearly smooth ; sides straight; 
base convex, with an obtuse margin; aperture 
rhomboidal, with rounded angles. 


H erent and width nearly equal; the sides of the cone 
are almost straight, each whorl being very slightly con- 
vex: a few concave lines may be traced around the spire, 
they are obscure and irregular; the lines of growth are 
very fine, and thus the surface appears smooth. The 
base of the columella is oblique, which gives the mouth 
a rhomboidal form, there is no umbilicus. 

his interesting Trochus nearly resembles T. ziziphi- 
nus, but is readily distinguished by its obtuse margin 
and plain surface. ‘The specimen figured was presented 
me by Mrs. Cobbold, who found it in the Craig pits at 
Holywells : the external coat has peeled off in some parts, 
anil exposes the pearly interior, whose pristine beauty 
may still be traced through the veil that time has cast 
over it in its subterranean cemetery. 

TAB. CLXXXL.---Fig. 2. 

Spec, Cuan. Conical; sides straight, ornamented 
with many transverse ridges, two or three of 
which upon each whorl are granulated ; base 
flattish, concentrically striated ; aperture qua- 
drangular ; columella direct. 


‘ ; d : 
[ue older shells of this species are rather wider than 
high; the superior whorls overhang the inferior ones a 

x he AAeny) 
ror7 £S 4 Bie 


little, else the sides of the cone would be very straight : 
the ridges vary in size ; the largest are towards the lower 
part of each whorl, with minute intervening ones ; the 
granulated ridges have small plain ones between them. 

Specimens from the Holywells estate, from two to six 
lines high: it does not appear to be rare. It bears a 
general resemblance to several species. 

TROCHUS concavus. 

TAB, OLXOCX Loa hiaaa: 

Srec. Cuar. Conical ; sides of the whorls concave ; 
base flattish ; margin carinated; aperture 

acutely rhomboidal ; umbilicus none. 

A. rew obscure transverse strix decorate the spire; in 
the concave part of each whorl is an indistinct row of 
tubercles ; the base is smooth, a little broader than the 
height of the spire. 

The Rev. H. Steinhaur found this shell in the inferior 
Oolite at Little Sodbury. It is distinguished from the 
next with which it agrees in general form, by the trans- 
verse striz, single carina, and solid columella. 


TROCHUS duplicatus. 
TAB. CLXXXI.---Fig. 5. 

Spec. Cuar. Conical ; sides of the whorls concave ; 
a double deeply crenulated carina round the 
base ; umbilicus open, with a tuberculated 
margin ; aperture quadrangular. 

ae aii 

Tue upper edge of each whorl is crenulated as well as 
the carine: the concave space between the two edges is 
plain; the whole surface is shining. The umbilicus, 
which has about seven tubercles around it, forms a strong 
and remarkable character. 

From Little Sodbury, along with the last. 

TROCHUS dimidiatus. 
TAB. CLXXXI.---Fig. 4. 

Spec. Cuar. Conical; base convex, with a cari- 
nated margin ; upper part of the whorl con- 
cave, with an entire carina in the middle ; 
aperture pentangular. 

EE ————— 

Tus smaller whorls are convex; the last formed 
ones only shew the carine and concave spaces between 
them : the carina in the middle of the upper part of the 
whorl projects so much as to give the shell a square 
clumsy form: the columella is direct and solid. 

I have received a single example of this from Little 
Sodbury, along with the two latter species; it is dull and 
rather rough on the surface. 

a ae 
"i | adt ‘ae Ot . ainiyan batalla 4 45 e 
as i hotels: ned i: hier AK fee Air: niin Bu; seed 
Gone a us wroinhaiep Pusreaqs vingtem 7 
; ‘Rae! ; pin , 

; : ; - ee er =i “y 
Fi Ss wi, ; V bs a Poopyics ee po 

. : aah pe heal win fy: bubewae > at ‘seiticr cere saiho se 

ae rng own pdt a tts nw tad. wonide ov egHtO? Om Ne 
oS epnitiaenins | od Ep " nutitide ai” ggloi afpite: 
RAIA E worrt i bh 2 | Ly pee 

ple Stak i> nh ahuccror 

? tage Soames 3) aif} ‘iw gauie’ hoe Tit oo 
\ ’ yi i ae rib r ‘i 
j ' . ~ Semperre’ aaa camara " : NM e 
‘ - , , i =) he : 
¢ oe fs ' et sa d as piles Ae 
Se ver ibionh  é aaa aay eh ed Ln. ge 

7 a 

| es fet nal : ty LUE. i. ey ay ie : F 

ete co é “ina 'p ier “rua y pour as he vist 3 si Ove 'y ae 
F ey “fro, 7 eft: ak ‘pene VAG nega steht" q 
pn en afihtit.. uf) ‘ei. paitey as tee Bhi “e 40Rs” 

. ee ish ‘ eH , “ 

gat Ghia ae Nm tee dick winded be, 
A ee ¢ : J . 

a POR Ey iAP aright ih Veins) PS Ss ws RENE ie MW Scary ‘ 

. idyll a Sd oe aM me 
re Been, Wee 
4% Shri Wes A be a: a A ss Ab ‘ 4 pi | y, ee 
Y | dieineerh bea adh) andor vi Af pal ashe a _ 5 

eater LPC g Meee Me, 
eon es Wad ashidye’a t's ince reid wit het. aiieweaae vita astQue " 
aie Site TO Deep eine sib, to slit ive oboe enehin oelt ath am, a 

Oba a 

ie ; A pm i Have i Tiki ka | ge oy en vy we a! ePyry rig ry dy 
eae nYtad: parity at elt vse val 9 SRO ee 
AE Tete TE ends teh nn f satel Mg ticteh 0) BO 

rt it 1 ae 4 c Paint Web wade dyin ul ite Pl cn : 
te id A a i 
y isbrine: ad) ich PB 
‘? | 1 oe Se 
4 \ ; | Bhi , \ Chee ’ ¥ 
net ; a . ‘ia 
en wf _ 3 ¢ ‘ “4 ee 
al sat mn 
_ va ‘ 


NAUTILUS striatus. 


Spec. Cuar. Slightly depressed ; umbilicate ; con 
eentrically striated ; aperture half the diameter 

ef the shell, nearly orbicular. 

WV norts rather gibbose, they are few, and increase 
rapidly ; the umbilicus is large, expesing a small part of 
the inner whorls ; the numezous. strme which cover the 
surface are irregular, elevated, and so strong, that trey 
might almost be considered as ridges ; the front is a little 
compressed, giving the apertare a squarish form. 

Found in the blue Lyas at Lyme Regis, Dorset. 
The large fragment was tent me by the Rev. W. Buck- 

‘. Pris, 
re MNeS)) 4p") 

f OL 

meena. AKT : 
oi ee eae is vi hs | 
: aes Eabaidtides: inner iy mit. 

) Sotontall ie | — i ree (aya « [p83 aii g 
we rm a are Bok Bly 


. Fr idm re 
Oe ha. 

ro Ris | Sia dain Ua) r mf pug? i tJ 

= *) | ; ma Wikis 

) : i 

+ : ‘ ‘ 

é 7 . 524) 

=" 7 . ot ve ie 

’ ie f fix ‘exkihind ‘bang oan a is ae \ ieie el? ‘rt ashor 
. a Alok: A Ly 7 iia, IKiniwr + g ani “ony ? iy gal ek PT Sitteteneas wut 3 i, big 
Ly 4/ 7] =) 4 }4 


| out. ‘fed ghey tt 02 how. hatin ied re 16 iam 
at Me sit a ei ‘tor Lad i abo ee od duoale & si 
f | Gateapt dkicayps a sich pi paivig. hogearga 
ert ctigest, eared tn: reg paid “alt cieney 

Vy duty a mph: axl wf ‘aa and u awh ‘h vara a an 

monet ail 99 devin vite ‘tron yaoM ‘ad ialeode ae ty ie a . 

uN ! DAN 
owt - Ps yi . 
, . , ie « uee i‘ is 4 wer. hones vis ie Hg sa i 
, ore (aati aap, he 
ey x cpa} yi ii ar ee 
? ¥ OP 
b> ba r A of < Lf ri vi rar. Chat sity 
; ‘ } ; a vie i 
‘ i i 
‘ie La ‘ . ' 
; i \ x" 
' ‘ | i 
Ap r a 

AMMONITES Loscombi. 

Spec. Cuar. Discoid, compressed, umbilicated ; 
inner whorls concealed ; radii many, shallow, 

waved ; front rounded ; aperture obleng. 

Bue surface is smooth; the umbilicus small, and not 
very deep ; the aperture is about two-fifths the diameter 
of the shell long, the thickness being only one-third the 
length of the aperture. 

I was favoured with the loan of the shell here figured, 
by C. W. Loscombe, Esq. who obtained it from the blue 
Lyas of Lyme in Dorsetshire. It is in a good state of 
preservation, but the mouth had been broken in a way 
that led some genius to clear the stone from it, so as to 
give the appearance of a beaked termination to it: tab. 
173, A. rostratus, shews a proper termination. I have 
thought fit to figure the present as a caution against de- 
ception. . 


6 » 

Gh ae a NGtad 4 
Weiss pall aah 

7 yh 
dates Pat i. Mit hai 

i! is 


die ty dee iy eee Sh 

Nea Nid aH weap WAL; 

ant ane a : 
aa ie rae on ihe 


“ifs bodman lien Koarrieperny 

api afi oxt bi 

Pe : : ‘p4 Tope 
4 . ‘ 

is aS - ik 

ee em Lae oe se Sahl 

hae yeallada "Nl Bvt yak 
Deen ee Peabo | fori ss 
ahbags 3 Biwlde mony at agi Me 


cores WAL ML 

hs W | | 

Mac 5. ae 

s i ? inn ) MAT A 



Obeligaiy ai. ies wet a 7 "+ Ves wel Pag am i 
Ter ide 
mei Sed 

i Ding city ws, “ceteh) May 443) er eae 

me Luis ir ef ; Ne ne nae 

at rad) | a q sak hed 
dt Trias five ‘ge % ine paper 

‘ hi 
any ‘Cap 

tt Nt ; Tae : uit. ny 

one r hi rhe 
Oy 28 Or uM Yuet +i tho: 

had > yi os rated tavtal bide 

petal J Lanes, eres 

ay ah if tae 

S je ‘bt bio neoitidaan oli 
ads a 

“gonnatb onl wilstit ye } 

wir im, 


» Ror? tig 

ye As, iia éh 
May At AF 

- digtatne . 
oh ai wn “ ny 
"int wilt iki ] 
ans “eibtelefid Wid ty 2 
chon agit au id. tad wild at itso df ity fara dist ase 
auld odd coat tid vi ay ae wy, pad caine ‘oT bi or er 
keen tye, fi ’ Bui a be M. Avinlerserodt, (ii Mis irk Wh swell Rie 
Yows ab wodowd a vd bad “dit ait i fy eee ae 
alt tn oly ot built; yscane a dh i" i 
oh 8 tae Pent tn Pat ona Sadly ovis : a. 
ayer ae “oir aasohaort 8 

1°93 by payties tus airs if Fed eae rH] wit wured obuk ia 

un Oh 
7 ’ 

: | fri 

ay aK) OAC) MELE? ey 
atten i) eh ~ (ade rr 

o ey Teas 

\ ree es 

er Le ies My : 


A ary 

ibaa s. . ae 



ice belle + oe 

en ure 



AMMONITES Braikenridgii. 

Seco. Cuan. Depressed; radiated; volutions ex- 
posed; front rounded ; crossed by the radii ; 
radii farcate; mouth round; lip expanded 
into two oblong lobes. - 

a ee 

Roan prominent, numerous, rather sharp, and equal to 
the spaces between tuem : there is a small tubercle upon 
each at the base of the branches ; the thickness of the last 
whorl is rather less than one-third the diameter of the 
shell; there are about three or four volutions. The lip 
is very striking, it commences with a square base, and 
having been continued a little way from the last radius 
it suddenly expands on the sides into two oblong lobes, 
on which are distinctly marked the lines of growth: the 
edges are sharp, and gradually bent a little inwards. 

Perfect terminations of the Ammonites are rare; I have 
however, met with several specimens indicating the form 
of the lip, but none of them exhibit any thing much out 
of the usual way, excepting some French ones, and those 
now before us: in one of the French specimens the aper- 
ture is much contracted by the lip; in another, the lip 
forms a single arched lobe slightly bent inwards.* 

These remarkable fossils are from Dundry near Bristol : 
they are composed of foliated carbonate of lime, and are 
imbedded in a compact limestone, replete with rounded 
shining grains of yellowish brown oxide of iron, and the 
remains of various other shells. They enrich the collec- 
tion of George Weare Braikenridge, Ksq. of Bristol. 

* Of these I have made an engraving for comparison ; they are found 
ina similar stove with the British one, at Bayeux in Normandy, and were 
_ presented to me by Mons. de Geryille, to whom I am much indebted for 
the fossil produce of the Cotentin. 

se b “Eee TY 

an h ee ary ae ee ae 
i Toca o 

ore ob oh 

ey ANG | 
i - ean apinds vader anoynnig Sincliing: oul, id 
ioe sie doi Matar & aorta: acils ubaied Koonge ob 2 > 
Faia onde bo wage Aaidd axle ommend ited ts oo ne ae 
Staines abinistiics nets ncaa lp Sd 
“gil odT > enoldlon yo 10 ‘voull Shady skal det “Malye Pa 
hoo ‘pend. rule e sii pinchia pon ci e a . 
vistas teal oda nxont.yove obit 4 hosnitios tyed yaivid | ir 
adel gaeldo om) orei giz oft Ka pbitnges ghyolihihe ie Bi x 
alt: :Atvhorg lo esitil od hadi phhogieih ox dolla moe Og igs 
* abaowal aladil oped ello liirng bat cqveibs-ene evgtos 
_agead E ) ons ote esdinouna tad) Yo aneiton fiir) johwet 
terre aul) gaitevihal eveminsen hog womabile Mun rovnieadl 
+ day atone syncs yon didiges qual te sot tH) ot le Vo ie 
_ shot bine asco dsuyy'h sine paiiqaaxe yeRK eet: . 
viii tasting ie VC $0 ae a : 


am i 

(saaep i 

Ss | 

“ail adi - osdioan, aif qil silt yd Balainwaes bonus ai 
* eburdad Mod qihitgile odal harsin oof ftie i 

foie when ibaa nvort on elieed! efile Aetna oad’! 
a fhe ait lo sinwodwa hedoitil to Ty nogeigs ous ali 

. batuttoy dtity stata fstoteomil } BADD Fi bahbsdeai, 
_ wh has tort to obice award dxivrol tv antinrg aminide ad est 

-rlfay oi, doitire yad't” lfode’s ved anole kes wainiagy, oa 
dered 8 Yo... pent ophimadiont ¢ nnaet La a (an 

ocean oe ene Cee San a 

howok Yor gede: s aoviyeqenae sal gaivetaan ge . aaa) 
ao bun cebamevevs. wb acta nit ti OO deiglnl od atiw weds 

+ MRO Rene Or ena 

4 ‘ 
“iy i 
(We. a f ira ty 
ot vw ‘5 i) 
) Whe \ aR MAE RIO: ae Er eS 
) d ie F za 9 ice ) 
fe Am ald ey va 2 
i Ba age ea 

AMMONITES constrictus. 
PAB: Also hie 1: 

Spec. Cuar. Depressed, radiated, armed with a 
row of acute tubercles on each side the front ; 
inner volutions concealed ; radii undulated, of 
various lengths ; aperture even, oblong, con- 
tracted by a blunt-edged inflected lip. 


Tx some varieties there are a few tubercles near the 
centre, the same bave also larger tubercles near the 
front: the tubercles are always largest about the middle 
of the last whorl, and gradually diminish towards the 
mouth and the inner turns, where they are entirely want- 
ing; on the contrary, the radii are most conspicuous on 
the inner whorls. ‘There is a minute, apparently open, 
wnbilicus. The mouth which is placed at an acute angle 
to the radii, is reduced to an oval form by an inflexion of 
the edge, and is so much contracted that the shape of its 
opening is not affected by the preceding whorl ; the edge of 
it is so bent that the closed partis placed nearly at a right 
angle to the remainder. The septa, the last of which lies 
about half a turn from the mouth, are much sinuated, and 

Casts only of this shell have as yet occurred, but they 
are so perfect, that they exhibit every thing that can be 
expected. The termination of the last chamber is a very 
striking feature ; it is met with in almost all the speci- 
mens. From St. Colombe, in Normandy. 

AMMONITES Gervillii. 
TAB. A.---Fig. 3. 

Spec, Cuar. Gibbose, umbilicate, radiated; a 
small portion of the inner whorls exposed ; 
radii sharp, bent, furcate ; aperture trans- 
verse, oblong, arched ; lip arched, sharp 

(oa arn ee 

"Tue thickness of this is rather more than half the dia- 

meter: the umbilicus is large, beautifully exposing the 


ribbed edges of the whorls: the radii are nearly close 
together, and very regular until just before the last whork 
is completed, when their place is supplied by two or 
three irregular waves ; the shell is then finished with a 
sharp edge. 

This species occurs in a marly Limestone, which is 
replete with grains of Iron Ochre : the place of the shell 
is supplied by foliated carbonate of Lime. It is from 
Bayeux, in Norraandy. 

AMMONITES Erongniartt. 
"LAB, Anwsoltg..2- 

Spec. Cuar. Gibbose; radiated ; umbilicate ; in- 
ner whorls concealed; umbilicus minute ; 
aperture transverse, oblong, arched, with a 
thick or inflected lip ; radii fureate, bent. 

"TP uicxness about two-thirds the diameter: the radii are 
close, waved, and very regular: the umbilicus is minute, 
round within, but oblong externally, in consequence of 
the last whorl being carried forward in a straight line for 
a short distance, after which it turns suddenly towards 
the mouth. 

This is found in the same state of preservation in the 
same stratum with fig. 3; and it may be worthy of obser- 
vation, that the Rev. Mr. Buckland possesses in his 
cabinet, a specimen from Yeovil of the same species with 
this, but in a stone very sparingly furnished with the fer- 
ruginous grains, and such as there are being in a decom- 
posed state. 

I have named these. two last shells, the one as a testi- 
mony of respect to an enlightened and warm friend of 
science in general, and of Natural History in particular, 
Mons. de Gerville, who bas laboured with much assiduity 
in collecting and arranging the fossils of the Cotentin :--- 
the other in honor of Brongniart; its rotundity may be 
considered as a type of the orb of knowledge spread 
abroad by that luminary, in conjunction with Cuvitr, 
after whom I have already named the spreadimg Inoce- 
ramus, Cuvieri. 

My kind friend M. de Gerville, above named, furnished 
me with all the three species figured on this plate. 


UNIO crassiusculus, 


Seec. Cuar. Oblong-elliptical, depressed; valves 
thick ; surface marked by lines of growth ; 

hinge strong. 

"Tur surface of this shell is regularly curved, without 
any hollow or rising: the beaks are sharp, a little re- 
curved: the lines of growth are not very prominent, 
except two or three of them near the edge : the hinge is 
light and elegant in comparison to that of U. crassissi- 
mus, although thick. 

I am indebted to the Rev. G. R. Leathes for the know- 
ledge of this Unio: he has obtained it from the Craig at 
Bawdesey, in Suffolk. 

The yalves have been replaced by carbonate of lime 
of a crystalline texture, and are attached to masses of 

ochraceous limestone, or lie loose in the craig. 

| ae eo any 
P hee: _ i uw 

hed ida obilien abe aot qils” oi 
Bie 4 = ag ee pe ighe 
“iy gy iowa ti , eae so ree 

ey OE ives 4 ah ae ie he : 

‘ ¥ : 
5 > v4 7 a 4 ' fs 
Ae 3 ’ x ; rf 7 4 ie bt | Be 
in 3 
Fe, sek ia . i P 7 ‘ 
. i ; + Te n'a 4 
p a o ie! seca _ ¢ 
at 4 
, ba 7 fs, we! Ny ry AM 
- i 

* ATM a 8 ° ’ Js Ay 
ie : . wen 
hes ‘al Pere ' coe 

‘ te wi ‘ mit ik, (tite sib ou av ‘aad 2 rt % itt 

ds ik me HN: fou " rh on" ei jeomih. alte : bor 

A "=. 
becss ote allt’? ha fia AME oe : 
path oil: dike Lat a ats yy “il bi bie iq50% 
“TP th i { ‘le boils abo outs qtr city 41% shane nite how su Ls 
is ar, re e ae te - , a . 

sft Uti’ ite A 

we: ah oni fru ef He. a SSH hit ab fronesh div wi 7 
‘ ba han 4 ti sol ie banieitda emi eit): aah i | ail ta aah ’ 
| plete a Ywonbive | 

fo Weataioa au 
to ‘Wtettodida’ 7 Pasnlties, igi th, Re law ot 20 

lo, 2oeredm ot bailouts m- bites per silladeyns. hy 

“lars we? at Seoul oil 1. fasten 
V "j 4 

hae ee 
* ; di 
¥ ‘ 

- ’ i : 

J F 

4 é 
> ’ % 
; P ay 7 —— i 
“es S 44 } 


PECTEN orbicularis. 


Srec. Cuar. Orbicular, much depressed, concen- 
trically striated ; strie elevated, sharp ; one 
valve smooth ; ears nearly equal, broadest at 

the base. 

A rut tender shell ; the striae are many, a line distant 
from each other ; the length and breadth are equal ; the 
ears rather large. 

One of the tender products of the green sand of the 
Devizes canal, preserved by Mrs. Gent. It appears to 

be unfrequent, as [ have seen but one individual. 

Vee 4 

: r 
i ra i 

nee MN 
e j » 

t aie ry 
Cat 7 
re, WN 

it ae ry 

r j . 
banner ae 
Pek oe ’ 
| ie 
t - F 
_ : 
Tae lk 
4 ee % 

se a 
“n9.0u109-- » dboeenga riputts: asithO wand 
ey ann < qraile batayats ‘nite “eboatais ilasink 43 

’ - ce 1A Samad 
te Jaah gond de 9 ‘gfaiae vine + Wor ome silat ie 
7 ‘ 5 * _ da ‘ 
2 Nie ise qeed 5 
, ’ -" | {i ¥}) 
’ ; ie ie aay 
} 6: aan Baa 
“ Wath. Cee a La! 
& ; , "i out A Sasso 
Bho yeas Me eo) b ' po ia Sea age FY 
r bY aes tl sees - crx 
sy daa ile ho aay : 
4 at oc »—* * 
: : \ 1 y \ ) 7 ee, 
: i ‘ Ye te Ge i” 
7 oie 7 : au ‘ ae ¢ wala vehe ‘ 
igaheib quib o yoni sve TH 4 lt fonts thie ¥ a ie 

‘oak ; Lnupe a1 dificerd hice digeol wild ; tostlo sion mont ae 

rh a Wh a4 bi . 5 14 
3 ae a, a 4 - so aie! weaser wih a i 


ta = “ : : . ue Pe 
me atlt to haa. yore yl To gambar wticar aft Wo vet aa 
a ae Y al ‘ La ’ 
yersenqn HM’ sao cenkh, qa - bowie ‘dain eM i aa | 
& 5 7 4 3 | bs Pd % at) 
i , ‘tnshivibs i orice (edd Woe Ge Pia e yhda pra hgnae of A 
P . i A 7 } ‘ - a 
, ‘A Te z 
/ ; a 
‘ ; a, sahil! 
ra | x yey " r By 
saa : i hy i RR A PARNER 
| : 
4 *« ‘ : 
’ " 
- 7 
i< c N 4 
ay > iol 


MUREX coniferus. 
TAB. CLXXXVII.---Fig. 1. 

Spec. Cuan. Elongated, with many longitudinal 
undulations, crossed by numerous unequal ele- 
vated striz ; volutions few, inversely conical, 
their upper parts depressed and nearly smooth; 
beak open, rather short ; aperture ovate. 

Tue general form of this Murex is that of a series of 
cones gradually diminishing in size, and so arranged, 
that the points of the smaller ones penetrate the bases of 
the larger : a few of the strie upon the smaller whorls 
form carine, which are thicker where they cross the un- 
dulations or costx, and give them a tuberculated appear- 
ance. ‘The upper part of each whorl is distinguished by 
the want ef transverse sirie. The aperture, including 
the beak, occupies half the length of the shell. 

Highgate Hill afforded me this species, which I have 
not recognized elsewhere. 

MUREX regularis. 
TAB. CLXXXVII.---Fig. 2. 

Spec. Cuar. Rather elongated, with many longi- 
tudinal undulations, crossed by strong elevated 
strie ; whorls convex, the last contracted to- 
wards the beak; beak open, rather slender, 
aperture obovate. 

Tur volutions vary in number, from five to eight ; they 
are very regularly convex ; the ribs and strie are also 

/ os Z /)? 5), 


pretty uniform: the beak has a slight bend: within the 
lip are a few small plaits, and the striz of the surface are 
distinguishable upon the columella. ‘The length of the 
mouth and beak together is half that of the whole shell. 

This was sent me from Barton Cliff, by Miss Salis- 

MUREX carinella. 
TAB. CLXXXVII.---Fig. 3 and 4. 

Spec. Cuar. Rather elongated, with many longi- 
tudinal undulations, crossed by strong elevated 
unequal strie ; whorls convex, subcarinated 
in the middle, the last contracted towards the 
beak ; beak open, rather slender ; aperture 

sa Rieter 

Venry similar to the last ; its difference consists of the 
subcarinated form of the volutions, which is chiefly pro- 
duced by the slight enlargement of one of the striz. 

This was favoured me along with the last: it bea 
some resemblance to the M. craticulatus of Brocchi’s, 
tab. 7, f. 14; but the last whorl is not so ventricose, 
neither is the carina so strong. 


CERITHIUM cornucopie. 
TAB, CLXXXVIII.---Figs. 1, 3, and 4. 

Spec. Cuar. Turrited, subulate, punctated ; whorls 
very numerous, superior ones with 3 or 4 un- 
equal tuberculated carine, central ones tuber- 
culated above, undulated below, with 4 or 5 
fransverse furrows ; lowest whorls crossed by 
9 or 10 elongated tubercles ; aperture quad- 
rate ; columella plaited ; beak short, curved. 

needa oaeeeaentemel 

So different are the several parts of an entire adult shell 
of this Cerithium, that fragments may be taken for dis- 
tinct species. ‘The whorls close to the apex have only 
one carina placed a little below the middle, and crenu- 
lated : in the succeeding whorls the upper edge gradu- 
ally becomes tuberculated, a small knotted keel rises 
between it and the central one, and the lower edge ap- 
pears crenulated : by degrees the tubercles on the upper 
edge increase in size, the central carina becomes flatter, 
and other carine arise on each side of it: near the 
middle of the shell these carine all become broader, and 
the spaces between them assume the form of furrows ; 
the tubercles and crenulations remain in the form of 
waves: in the mean while the tubercles upon the upper 
edge are elongated, and towards the interior part of the 
shell join the waves below them, displacing the furrows 
by degrees, till having receded from the edge in the 
three or four last turns, they occupy the whole whorl in 
the form of blunt, oblong, rather oblique knobs. The 
mainute hollow punctums that are dispersed over the 
whole surface are disposed in lines that diverge as they 
rise over the tubercles, and converge again as they de- 


scend, very elegantly. The aperture in half grown shells 
is quadrate; in full grown individuals the right lip is 
semicircular. The beak is a little twisted ; the, edge of 
it rises upon the columella like a plait ; above this is an 
obtuse plait upon the columella; and a third plait, or 
rather ridge, sometimes occurs just above the columella. 
Its length often exceeds a foot; the diameter of the last 
whorl is one-fourth the length in general, but sometimes 
the shell is less taper. The whorls are above 30 in num- 

The clay, mixed with green sand, exposed at low tides 
under Stubbington Cliff, has afforded fragments of this, 
the most ornamental fossil shell I know; but these are 
in a bad state of preservation, not only in consequence 
of their exposure to the ocean, but from having been 
much perforated by some worms, that have threatened 
the rapid destruction of their usurped habitation before 
it was consigned to the earth, to be preserved for ages 
yet to come. I am indebted to the kindness of Mr. Hol- 
loway for a specimen, which from its situation was diffi- 
cult to be obtained : it is represented at fig. 1: perhaps, 
if the stratum could be explored before the sea had acted 
upon it, specimens might be procured in a high state of 
preservation. My good friend Mr. De Gerville has sent 
me from the Cotentin a good series of the same species, 
delicately preserved, but not perfect at either extremity ; 
several of them are worm-eaten, like the Stubbington 
ones : fragments of the upper parts are shewn for illus- 
tration at figs. 3 and 4. As it is often filled with minute 
shells, Mr. De Gervillehas been in the habit of calling it by 
a name analogous to cornucopie, a name I have thought 
sufficiently expressive of its magnitude or capaciousness 
to apply: it is also applicable to the giver’s generosity, 
whose horn of plenty I hope to have the pleasure of 
emptying into the lap of science at no very remote period. 


CERITHIUM giganteum. 
TAB. CLXXXVIIL.--- Fig. 2. 

Syn. C, giganteum. Lamarck Env. de- Paris, 
p. 95. Knorr, If. tab. 17, 7). 
Parkinson Org. Rem. III. 71. 

Spec. Cuar. Turrited, extremely long, transversely 

striated, minutely punctated ; upper parts of 
the whorls tuberculato-nodose ; columella uni- 



Accorpixe to De Lametherie, 30 inches is a length 
sometimes attained by this gigantic shell, the diameter 
of the last turn being then 73 inches. Unlike the last, 
this Cerithium is nearly uniform throughout its length ; 
it differs from every part of it in the position of the tu- 
bercles, which are confined to the upper parts of the 
whorls : below the tubercles are 6 or 7 transverse strie 
at equal distances from each other ; while in those whorls 
of the C. cornucopie which have striz below the tuber- 
cles, they are but five, and at unequal distances. This 
is also more taper than C. cornucopiz. 

It was not until I had described the preceding, that I 
discovered, upon comparing two specimens sent me by 
Mr. Holloway, very carefully, with an authentic one of 
C. giganteum, given me by Mr. Parkinson, that Mr. 
Holloway’s were distinct from each other ; and that the 
smaller one, although much worn, still retained charac- 
ters enough to prove it to be the giganteum. It is ex- 
traordinary, that two species, hitherto met with in different 
parts of France, should be found together on the English 
coast. The worms that have committed such ravages 
upon both species, have in the specimen before us been 
more limited in their operations, confining them to 
straight lines, that branch in a dichotomous manner. 


: a ai Ae , mine 

i Me tina 
| ee ‘ Ao vali sg ‘nal wg vabinoray 
| ea yl sone oa 
GAIA bichon meth 
ai i fotki, tea tani, fat a) “Gi it ; Be ry 
ve ae a, An, xii ed va ahi pec rt 
na ee on i wd ee nl teri yi i baie 
ip oy By ‘is Ae wwe ebony aan nen, hey ly sing 
re heal pa akin Heonwe ‘ al fac be 

] f " Le iW ae if Nir 
. mh an me di 4 hy Sapa ih beh wh nn ‘ Hy 
0 Neyanh ad tel eka ye Sei Av ok 

ki 7 sui yt ne iwi he tall oil : 
Mey nee no I) Ue aa cme 
rd My ai ae Hayy ti hap ,' ny 
; pas On hs ae ne indi tain vs oti 
+ at gt Mid “ty “otvageeh lea 
" k ¥ adi, LL ag sii Ht it aa 
if fy i ry eiaiy, shies vip . ian 

; | ., j mnt us bit toe nei ney sn ei 



MUREX fistulosus. 
TAB. CLXXXIX.---Fig. 1 and 2. 

Syn. M. fistulosus. Brocchi, II. 394 tab. 7, 
M. pungens. Brander, f. 82. 

Spec. Cuar. Oblong, varicose ; each varix foli- 
ated, and produced above in a recurved tube ; 
aperture obovate, entire ; beak nearly straight, 

By no means a handsome shell, although remarkable : 
the varices, or ribs, are thick and clumsy; each has a 
sinuated thin appendage at the back of it, and a large 
arched tube at the upper part: the aperture is perfectly 
entire, the lips being joined all round : outside the right 
lip are four or five sinuated fimbriz, more or less distinct 
in different individuals : the beak is broad, and in old 
shells is often double or triple, the earlier formed ones 
remaining uncovered. The width of the shell in the 
middle is about half the length. 

I have met with two specimens of this found in Bar- 
ton Cliff; they were presented to me by Mr. Bullock : in 
one of them the fimbria near the aperture are very 
obscure: allowing that they may sometimes be entirely 
wanting, there would not remain a shadow of difference 
between these shells and Brocchi’s figure: Brocchi ob- 
serves, that his shell is variable. Brander’s fig. 82, 
seems to have been intended for this also, although in 
Dr. Solander’s description it is not distinguished from 
M. pungens, fig. 81. 

MUREX tubifer. 
TAB. CXXXIX.---Figs. 3 to 8. 

Syn. Murex pungens. Brander, p. 35, f. 81. 
Murex tubifer. Lamarck Env. de Paris, 
p. 04. Park. Org. Rem. “Veto Pr. 
pe 09. 6. rf. 15; 
Murex horridus. Brocchi, IJ. 405. t. 7. 



Spec. Cuar. Ovate ; with four rows of erect tubes 
alternating with four solitary tubes upon each 
whorl ; aperture obovate, entire ; beak arched, 


V otvrions convex and smooth, each furnished with four 
or five longitudinal rows of tubular spines, generally 
three in a row; between each row is a solitary erect 
slightly arched tube, placed upon the upper part of the 
whorl. The beak is rather pointed, closed at the front, 
but open at the end. 

It is remarkable that Brocchi should have mentioned 
Lamarck’s M. pungens as related to his M. fistulosus ; 
while he has described M. pungens under the new name 
of horridus, in nearly the same terms as those used by 
Lamarck, without referring to him. Brocchi seems to 
have had finer specimens than are found in Hampshire, 
although it is probable that they come from a distant part 
of the same stratum, and consequently may have been 
buried at nearly the same period : is it not likely that one 
part of a stratum may have been in a situation more con- 
genial to the growth of the individuals it has enveloped 
than others? The more perfect state of preservation in 
which many of the foreign fossils are now obtained, 
probably arises from the climate in which they are ex- 
posed: that of England, especially by the sea-side, 
being more calculated for the destruction than the pre- 
servation of tender calcareous reliques. 

The specimens numbered 3, 4, and 5, are from Bar- 
ton ; the two former through the kindness of Miss Salis- 
bury; the latter, which is a young one, before the beak 
is closed, was sent me by the Rev. Mr. Bingley. 

Figs. 6, 7, and 8, are from young shells found at 
Highgate: although they are nearly as large as fig. 5, 
the rows of tubes are not formed, but the solitary tubes 
are commenced : in fig. 8, which is the smallest, there 
are several indications of the first tube upon the varices. 
Had a larger extent of ground been opened, it is possible 
we might have come to the bed where this species had 
attained its full growth. 




Spec. Cuar. Depressed, carinated, with a sulcus 
on each side of the keel; radiated; radii 
strong, simple, arched ; inner volutions ex- 

posed ; aperture oblong. 

A. sorpry marked shell, with four or five whorls, of 
which the inner ones are more than half exposed ; the 
radii are large and prominent, equally broad with the 
spaces between them; each is composed of a single arch 
bent forwards ; the keel is round and entire, with a deep 
furrow on each side of it. The surface of the shell is 
finely marked with lines of growth. The length of the 
aperture is about one-third the longest diameter. 

From the Blue Lyas ef Lyme Regis, Dorset, favoured 
me by the Rev. W. Buckland. I have named this after 

H. J. Brooke, Esq. M.G.S. a gentleman well versed in 
Geology and Mineralogy. 

a He 

Le er 

a x 

7 hie ; 
ie Rate #, hy, a im Ls es 

alia Sith 4 
binky wig gaa 

: : i * J 
a 4 A f 
ve a eatin whe: ; 
a. mf Puy noi ai 
2 i! uae me A we mG i a ao my 
ih ae 1% " Bie ‘) FP ae th veya 
‘ae | ih “ my fe. 4.8 te y Nanee en | Lt aie me Se 
Hh mm" th a his ae ¥ iit ' Pays Y HAG, ‘- TA 
‘ i Vayu i 4 i i” 
"% that cia) a de ca ae eR! Way i dar ae 
ol ji ne y a an aay ey ar Scteerthard Re ‘ " 
a ie ac Ta i ie DVS. Sy lie 
PET ea One ee ; ) ‘ ; . : on 
vi a Ae ke ne A j may ¥ Li alte ’ i oa at 
. Y, =) 

‘ wate oe ~ un dale ‘til Diane ‘a bade Re 
ae al ait Mint. end” ony weayaé ddl ckthe nia 
Famer been, iggy fate tayo oo batt sr , th, thea f 

| me gin sh Na Arowarion 6 dep: 2 mal een Ted ono, | 

me: Ate pnt y pene Arab tesint Saath hitiiocedl fs svi ‘ps rrey Oe ae we 

. | at Sls. Ssh iy, aah vid es 4 Te in hone ~— i 
on bie seed yh | atheros T4, ‘See vege Bapohigrt: qiouit 

‘ ee. a sdk ine ee io! eee 4. ornedroqes 

: RN, ne ih Wh i A eu a ey SE yuigk to ays P caption ea 

| i ae # nig be snd Btn aid tid eg 
; CL aati dashed nt M08 ‘a inal 
ee 2 ane 

\ ny 
ie 3 Va ne A i tind 
w phe i \ is ~ f i Pelee ne a i ) f | ae | y 




Srec. Cuan. Lenticular, depressed, radiated ; ra- 
dit broad, slightly elevated ; inner whorls half 

exposed ; edge crenated ; aperture sagittate. 

Lexeru of the aperture two-fifths the diameter of the 
‘last whorl: the radii are little else than almost straight 
radiating undulations ; they are lost near the edge: the 
cast shews some signs of concentric striz upon the surface 
of the shell: the inner edge of the whorl is strongly de- 

Of this species I have only seen a cast ; it was lent me 
by the Rev. W. Buckland, who obtained it from a Marle- 
bed, connected with the inferior Oolite, near Bridport in 

I have the honour of naming this after Charles Stokes, 
Esq. M.G.S. whose acquaintance I have long valued, 

and whose abilities deserve our warm remembrances. 

mk ip i 

‘iil on ra ee 

eee et: | 

a ' wpe cays) uo ar 3 me 4 

AM * . : ‘iy ETRE A ed aie a " ay baby vd Hoe 

i if uljee tbe nt Rao ail ‘es ft fa} ite pi) Mr Daten ea oe le hs 
f ley . " | + | ra P ‘ } Ar ; Samat cae ard i as 

Ma) \ ne bk ey ie ii hie ; yh iy sit f ei ull vith? te abeeiy ut i 

a yi bh ay th : EAS ree J | , wi igs 

i ; re n't sauna oni “ehh writ opihivak a OPAL 
mr ; wo) ata vate anni? ip ssbrult ead ey aut Nae raat i ne 
AL: ‘ ‘ i eer c ots id heal seit ith paddy 3 wath, Roast: ita ie 
WAR hs abi ema wal hg mE, jeder ae le #sregia & SH 

Hannan ith hs i Reet mh Naty ail hy YM deh ns onTieui ys 
. f \ yi ; ‘ Wie) j i i ee i i 4 a y fy is i? f 
en sify vapor wg “ae ve ere tin iy ei wk eabanipp ae sone 
hea) A 1 
wtad Re eh, ty ys be Sig we . 
Mi 7 ee SAO ot hing! LE ref ody a 
‘a Ladakh ei il aby: dean IS Ae 0) all 
ae i igh jh m + \ i" wan Le ji * as id 
: ae Gah han 
tke sl vns yi BY uk TO eee Mari ; 
i ONY % t “Shore ‘oth? NPAT Figs at ihe oh ae | 
¢ yt ater ena ude) Why bi} Ma tip wat) 
backs Mad ii eg phi a) a a Hv " : 
Ni! ue if! y ae Uae | . A EAS 
i, oy 1» i ‘ ait q iM P he faa 

My iat <a Hat ee WP erie 

Ay Ue Aa). 3 yt ¥ 

ee ae A a, or ie ve 

fe ' i ; a A utd ; Lf j of veh ay 

\ AY, "" ot rn ‘Py HR Tif Ty ‘ae Ita A i ry 
Ne 7 Ate f ) Y 

i! , \ h i fee { TD 



NUCULA levigata. 
TAB. CXCII.---Figs. 1 and 2. 

Spec. Cuar. ‘Transversely elliptical, convex, 
smooth ; posterior side truncated; edge en- 

Neaxty related to N. Cobboldie, but wider and per- 
fectly smooth: it has not even the striae beneath the 
surface, so usual in other species. The lunette is im- 
pressed, convex, oblong, and occupies the truncated 
part of the pesterior side; it has a pit or compressed 
tooth in the hinge, similar to several other species. 

Of this I have received fragments from Mrs. Cobbold, 
which were very pearly, although found in the Crag of 
Holywells. The perfect specimens represented are from 
Woodbridge ; they are of the usual colour of ihe Crag, 
but still betray the once more pearly internal coat. They 
are nearly as perfect as living specimens; I was glad 
to see them ; they were favoured by Mr. Parkinson. 

NUCULA similis. 
TAB. CXCII.---Figs. 3, 4, and 10. 

Syn. Arca Nucleus. Brander, p. 40. f. 101. 
Brocchi, IT. 480? 
Nucula margaritacea. Lamarck Env. de 
Paris, 193°? 

Spec. Cuar. ‘Transversely obovate, depressed, ob- 
scurely striated longitudinally ; posterior side 
straight ; lunette imbedded ; concave in the 
middle, oblong ; edge crenulated. 

Tus differs from the recent British Nucula (Arca nu- 
cleus, Linn.) in the angle formed by the two lines of hinge 


teeth ;—in that it is a right angle,—in this it is greater. 
The lunette of the recent one is regularly convex ; in 
the fossil it is depressed in the middle, and also lies 
deeper. The fossil is generally less convex than the 
recent, and a trifle wider. The striz in both are beneath 
the surface, except near the crenulated edge: in the fos- 
sil they are most conspicuous in old shells. 

Found in Barton Cliff: the small specimens (figs. 3 
and 4), are from Highgate: whether the latter, (fig. 4) 
should be considered as a distinct species, or only a va- 
riety, it is not perfect enough to determine: the strie 
upon it are elevated over nearly the whole surface not 
confined to the margin. 

Lamarck and Brocchi having declared didir shells to 
be identical with the Linnean A. nucleus, in conformity 
with the general opinion respecting these fossils, I have 
added a query to their synonima, for I have not seer 
foreign specimens, and they may prove to be different 
from either of the Hampshire ones, (N. similis and tri- 
gona,) which have also been confounded together. 

NUCULA trigona. 
TAB. CXCII.---Fig. 5. 

Spec. Cuar. Ovato-deltcid, compressed, smooth; 
edge crenulated ; hinge-pit short; lunette 
concave. . 

Disrinevisuzp from N. similis by its triangular form, 
flatted valves, and concave lunette, which also distin- 
guishes it from A. nucleus of Linnzus. 

Sent me along with N. similis from Barton, by Miss 
Salisbury : it appears to be quite new. I would propose 
to call the A. nucleus of Linn. Nucula intermedia, be- 
cause it comes between this and N. similis in form, as 
the hinge of this is more acute than a right angle. 

209 : 

NUCULA pectinata. 
TAB. CXCII.---Figs. 6 and 7. 

Spec. Cuar. Transversely elliptical, elongated, 
convex ; posterior side truncated ; longitudi- 
nally furrowed; lunette imbedded, flat, cor- 
date ; edge crenulated. 

Tis is a large species of Nucula; its surface is co- 
vered by small diverging furrows, which are crossed by 
fine transverse striae: the lunette is very conspicuous ard. 
broad. The specimens are not so opened as to shew the 
hinge pit, but I think it may be traced in the casts. 

I am indebted to W. Borrer, Esq. an enlightened Bo- 
tanist, for specimens found in clay in Sussex, long since. 
I have also received several from Folkstone and Dover, 
where they are abundant in various states. The shell is 
tender, and filled either with argillaceous Ironstone, or 
Pyrites : when the shell is decayed there remain neat 
casts of the inside, shewing the teeth and the two mus- 
cular impressions of each valve, which must have been 
deep in the shell, as the casts of them are much elevated. 
The shell is pearly within. The two figures 7 are diffe- 
rent views of a cast in Ironstone of a similar but wider 
shell, in which the anterior side is more acuminated ; 

probably this form is produced by the compression of the 
two valves together. 

NUCULA minima. 
TAB. CXCII.---Figs. 8 and 9. 
Spec. Cuar. ‘Transversely ovate, convex, trans- 

versely striated ; posterior side acuminated ; 
edge entire ; lunette defined, elongated. 

Neary twice as wide as long ; the lunette is straight, it 
reaches from the beak to the angle of the posterior side : 


the row of teeth swelling into the cavity of the shell be- 
neath the lunette, give the inside a beaked appearance : 
the hinge pit is minute. 

A small, though not unworthy present, from Miss 
Salisbury. I suppose it to be rare at Barton, as I have 
only seen a single valve. Figure 9 is the sketch of a 
cast from among a cluster that was found at Highgate: 
they appear to belong to a more gibbose, and perhaps 
curved species, but are not sufficient to decide from: the 
shell remains in part upon some of them in a very soft 
and friable state. 

N. minima may possibly be young of Arca minuta of 
Brocchi, Vol. II. p. 482; but it is only striated, not 
suleated ; and it differs from his A. nitida, in being ra- 
ther gibbose than depressed, and not truncated. 


TROCHUS punctatus. 
TAB. CXCIIL.—Fig. 1. 

Spec. Cuar. Conical, with straight sides, trans- 
versely striated ; upper striae upon each whorl 
crossed by oblique undulations, lower ones 

minutely granulated, a narrow band between 
the two sets. 

V ery little higher than wide: the surface is tolerably 
even: the stria are numerous; they are most prominent 
towards the upper parts of the whorls, where they are 
granulated by small oblique undulations: towards the 
apex the band is crossed by fine striz. 

From the inferior Oolite of Dundry, near Bristol. 

TROCHUS elongatus. 
TAB. CXCIII.— Figs. 2, 3 and 4. 

Spec. Cuar. Conical, elongated, transversely stri- 
ated ; striae near the apex granulated ; each 
whorl slightly undulated near the upper edge, 
with an obscure band below the middle; the 
inferior margin pz “nent. 

Breavrn of the base two «irds the height ; the strie 
-are less numerous, and the wir tations larger but shorter 
than in the preceding: tie ides of the whorls are 
slightly concave. 

Very nearly allied to the preceding, but distinguished 
by the prominent margins of the whorls, and longer form. 
Found in the same stratum ot Dundry. Mr. Braiken- 
ridge has jn his cabinet a speetinen 25 inches high, and 
two inches wide, being rather a broad variety. 

a. ve 


TROCHUS abbreviatus. 
TAB. CXCIIi.--- Fig. 5. 

Spec. Cuar. Conical, shortened, transversely stri- 
ated; strize obscurely decussated by oblique 
lines of growth ; inferior margin of each whorl 
very prominent, obtuse, with an obscure band 
above it. 

aan) eae 

Brraptn greater than the height ; the prominent mar- 
gins of the whorls are marked by semicircular lines; but 
they are not regular, being only lines of growth. The base 
is sharply striated. 

This Trochus, and the two species above described, 
were sent me by George Weare Braikenridge, esq. who 
collected them at Dundry. I understand that they are not 
such perfect specimens as might perhaps be obtained at 
some future period, but I am anxious to make them public 
on acount of their near resemblance to some Trochi found 
in a similar stratum in Normandy, of which I have given 
one or two of the products in illustration of Ammonites 
Braikenridgii. The 'Trochi I allude to have largely cre- 
nulated margins, which at once distinguish them; but one 
ofthem is characterized by sharp numerous elevated striz, 
which cross the whorls obliquely on their upper parts, and 
in semicircles over the band and prominent inferior mar- 
gin; there are vestiges of such striz in the species before 
us, but the French shell differs also in having a greater 
number of transverse strie, and being of a longer form, 
itis most like Trochus elongatus. They all have solid co- 
lumelle. It appears very remarkable to me, that strata 
agreeing together in their composition so closely should 
produce several shells resembling each other, but, as far 
as I have hitherto learnt, none are precisely the same. I 
wish to instigate further research. It is a circumstance 
corresponding with provincial differences among man- 
kind; whether such differences among shells should be 
considered as specific, may remain a question. 


NAUTILUS sinuatus. 


SPEc. Car. Thick, umbilicate, concentrically 
striated ; side depressed, conical; front con- 
vex ; aperture obtusely sagittate, truncated ; 
the septa have a large sinus on each side. 

Tz most remarkable character of this Nautilus is, the 
large marginal rounded sinus or lobe on each side the 
septum: the septum is also much elevated towards the 
front. The strie are nearly close together, moderately 
fine, and elevated : they gradually disappear towards the 
mouth. The inner whorls are wholly concealed, and 
few. The greatest diameter is equal to twice the thick- 

For the use of the only specimen T have seen of this, 
I suppose rare as well as remarkable shell, [ am indebted 
to the well known author, Mr. Parkinson. It was found 
somewhere near Yeovil, but Mr. Parkinson is not ac- 
quainted with the exact locality. It appears to belong 
to the inferior Oolite : its chambers are lined with car- 
bonate of lime stained with iron, and partly crystallized 
in acute rhombs: It is not broken so as to shew the 
situation of the siphunculus. 

‘ A 

fis a Hi its at 
Yi aan 2a 


ah vet AE URE 

. Hui ei ts ry 
So? MnO) |: lodleoky Bows sah SR 
we sf { dada’: dik wie loautied o. sth roe 
PP Desh Mek PO eG Hie Fala a 9 


; ‘Sib 7% 

Siete ee, | 

=o t ‘ie 

way? 8 yt tnd Vi wie Dew eados pes adn: sun i 
7 ‘ taut ute re ‘ae HS igi aX: wicepe Helaigen bein 
er “itd Gta Hak Nag Ns Ayftry ne oy ree qe De vi 
Rh COLCA ak ame ay ee ti tae ene tnatin) ool 

H at Haw i 0) As ei xm Ses ; ¢ if y ita v: by hae 
| wee Hi to hal ehtcit bye y 5 abd the Neg trun ete ai 

f : abit ‘vais “ CWS. cell ‘kay Ps 7 | Pid pM am 7+ nl 
| a i ts : ‘i . 

on Ne ‘ Pen hay ve Vibe mt Pie ? jul ts i 3 ‘al pra 

fy, anetig: j J ft J ey a er aut his Fe ile bored if 

PRa iL GRE Ona Dee UE. low pip rmeaaal & Hw oad 

. i NNR RS gm et 

Tah, 400 COR Hn s, WA Hird, iyo & a ha 

ayrenting, od areal 22 os pai gut dys 

riS f Te by i og it pind » ff 7. at nek wh 
‘ ~ ot 3 
ay Nia! yay My Pai AAs prada #) ake 
wat Woda ede i) a Bhsid ede on Wes 

alike: mg a maty ie is 

ylang eae iyi hae, 2 Awa. “e 
i” cial oll AA Rae ok * 



Spec. Cuar.  Gibbose, umbilicated, radiated : 
margin of the umbilicus squareish ; radii nu- 
merous, sharp bi or tri-furcate; aperture 
lunate, with obtuse angles. 

dikes inner volutions are almost concealed; the small 
portion that is exposed is seen within a deep umbilicus, 
the sides of which are nearly straight from one whorl to 
another: the radii commence within the umbilicus, and 
having proceeded a small distance over the edge of it, 
and increased in thickness, they divide into two branches, 
and pass over the front, uniting again on the other side: 
it frequently happens, that the branches from one radius, 
instead of uniting again with each other, join the conti- 
guous branches of two radii on the other side: sometimes 
there is a third branch which is free at one end. The 
thickness nearly equals half the diameter. 

The larger specimen was found on the estate of the 
Earl of Bristol, near Spalden, in Lincolnshire: I have 
named it to commemorate the present enquiring and 
penetrating spirit of that noble family. ‘The smaller is 
from Bradford: it has more of the structure of the shell 
remaining : they both appear to be from the lower Oolite. 
The outline is a section, of the last whorl. Mr. Cumber- 
jand has sent me the same from Knowles Hill, in Somer- 


in rn eae haces ae 
ni Mera ; 

n “Ue ip ee fa Mapes ae mn sy 

| ee miYLRiSp« ae on att, be: ctiny 1 A 

igh ehh tiga. 7 id: Gite aiie,: seas a 
| : ‘gle % ‘gatrlo.t Ncw ar 


‘ ; i neat ‘sy % hac ae a, ex AW 

oD be ba oe ‘ we 

a PP p 

| a ae il qf i abit ath ss 7 ae i ‘ee 
a Hos hw “sty if ave ite i sity un piste, Mi 

Bs ig re 
sidiel ay uf) yu a eA f vata) itp aN. 4) 

ye ae ft iy F MGT faces ane a f D, Pr ie i 
; d oh iy « oF i * Ay % 
sa) sais ar ie Seta Sa mnnene Go a lng ag nt 
i ; : , : aie ey 
cre swortoidant (ude al baw ask 



i wae i rin y } dunctd } en 4a ty 
‘ : i a hey cat ee ~ ‘ i. ee 
ny = : Mh y 4“ PAPE? ‘ Whte..s Lip 
} a weet TRICO, RS es ivi att J 
| . PALE, ‘ Raa ied f 
q MOTE TL TONE ely Kieed 
Oe Sa BIS anh a Cee 
, APT ed ROL TMT ME 3 
an PUR! ye tosh) tg Rm BANE PAD Oh ake 
ri PVTTLY ME PIRIE « ¢ mM tk 
. ; \ y M nt 
we” Liew & a - 
( ne : Ae ar, 
‘ Ps ABST ) 
‘ yy" ‘ ag a ae 
+ " 
“a fi} stint: ) ey wietapy i 
- rar cy ‘ eh 1% 4 
Saale) aitean tee oie 
ma, ‘ Ly BMY x a, Ana 
‘ f ' ta 1") 4 . 
. i ; 7" ¥ 
a1. Baa aty ie, ae . 
J a His ve ‘eh 
‘ Heugt mi FY 4 Pel 
. j ( , €? at 
Ny ' F ¥ yee Uk 
ide ‘ iy Hd | Hat ¢ 
A “a Aver ’ ‘ee * nee Ly t 6s 
~ "1 it fs a 
ad ‘ ' 
Ry r, ‘ or i 
io shee They Da rd fi; 
wey r 1 9 tds wa oh 
= uv 
A ‘ ; 

eS en 


VENUS rustica. 

Spec. Cuar. Sub-orbicular, gibbose, smooth ; an- 
terior side obscurely defined, convex ; a thick 
lateral tooth within the anterior slope. 

oe Eee 

Y ovne shells of this species are nearly orbicular, if we 
may judge from the strong lines of growth, with a slight 
depression to distinguish the anterior side: as they ad- 
vance in age they become rather more transverse. The 
hinge of the right valve is furnished with two thick teeth, 
which are united at their upper parts, and one elongated 
lamellar tooth ; these three are placed near the beak: at 
a distance from the beak on the anterior side is another 
tooth ; it is short, thick, and blunt. The lunette is cor- 
date, obtuse, and not distinctly marked out. 

The above description is taken from a single valve: 
it appears to be a full grown shell, and has been distorted 
in the latter part of its growth, as old shells frequently 
are, so as to make it oblong, and give it a tumid edge. 
There are marks of a Flustra that once covered its 
surface still remaining upon it. Its being strong and 
rather clumsy in its form has suggested its name. 
I am indebted to the Rev. Mr. Lambert, whose 
name I have had occasion formerly to mention, for the 
use of the specimen; he obtained it from the Crag pits 
of W oolnough, Esq. at Hollesley, Suffolk. I do not 
consider it properly arranged as a Venus; but until some 
necessary divisions are made in that Genus, and in Lu- 
cina, to which it belongs more properly, it must remain 


ed Ve 

Po ‘ie 

a Wh Bie owaitna’ Soo itty vt m Lo ‘ ‘ie 
i ae a a sr yataatatnt satis dus it 

y ey vy; ; vi Ri i : 
ae hath mea bia aad en Wn 
* 1 Rigile. wie dla ony Wo, eouit Badwe mir sta on 
ON, Saba yoilt 46: abig-whetda sdf, Mahia: of nolaet 
ante win diy poi cl eu Ea 
| dimer staid dve¥ dicen baduinnih of bullae iis ad}, o 7 
- Datigaoly. wn fm abu vgs ‘svat ie bavi oun 
th. nad oilh shui hoadley oye sottlé ganilt ; dad 9 
ae < Taetonn 2 obi wiroina sdb ah dnad ade moth soi 
46h ef ttaval od tel ba olildy sled ois 
Adib benabrnien MUD disitalts You fears padi si 
Sovlay alpala a anol «odes 6) hailgiivesbincode ake * 
hevivomnilt dowd gor Kew Hosta crm crews Itt a ag at ateuingege 
\gfttonpot lta rte thwart, ai "to. deg woiegl galt | 
aati bitouk a, eon hin -yaokdo it odeuv yp bn oF 
dt Hoxewos sono hall weal’ 9 Yo waheds 918, at 
owe guioite qahat ath ti, nagar gecimtnies [ed ae 
“deisnet at “hadasgyue ved aiel eli de (aailo tyler }y i 
| gtathe Seiten aM .¥eR oid or hwhtshand © mts: - 
aif xt .Wolimarn 6+ afvnitiod inonimnane Lad vee WE axenget 
aity wail) oh ment tt hoagie: at inert nda: 40 anu Ye 
tort OL ASB spotty ORR td. baad: ti han Diy 
omen Ged tod dove’ T hee hey ia ba 
amt fii? Ites Gone dintht toh bhanent 



hte f im ye 
wit gy ‘ * 


CARDITA ? producta. 
TAB. CXCVILI.---Fig. 1. 

Spec. Cuar. Transversely oblong, gibbose, with 
six or seven angular longitudinal ridges ; an- 
terior side produced, plain. 

Tie length is about two-thirds the width: the ridges 
are highest towards the posterior half, and I suspect in 
the young shells they are tuberculated. The beaks are 
rather prominent. A cast from the inferior Oolite, near 
Bath, the Rev. H. Steinhauer. I have it young in Piso- 
lite, from Chapel House, near Chipping Norton, given 
me by Mr. B. Clark; and also from Peterborough, in 
compact limestone, by favour of Mr. H. Jenkins. 

CARDITA ? obtusa. 
TAB. CXCVIL.---Fig. 2. 

Spec. Cuar. Transversely obovate, recurved, gib- 
bose, with from 7 to 10 longitudinal, nearly 
equal, tuberculated ridges. 

hess anterior side is largest, obtuse, and plain; the 
slope above it is concave ; the length is but little less than 
the width. 

From the inferior Oolite, near Bath, and at Dundry, 
both casts : it was brought me from the latter place by 
Lady Wilson, whose zeal for collecting has seldom been 



CARDITA? lirata. 
TAB CXCVILI.--- Fig. 3. 

Spec. Cuan. Transversely oblong, gibbose, with 
9 or 10 longitudinal tuberculated ridges ; the 
ridge separating the posterior side is much the 

Tue posterior side is well defined by a large ridge ; it is 
convex, and has two or three tuberculated ridges pass- 
ing over it; the anterior side is not so plain as in either 
of the other species upon this plate; the length is twice 
the width. 

Occurs in the Lyas near Bath, from whence it was 
sent me by the Rev. H. Steinhauer, and also in the Corn- 
brash, as I learn from a mutilaied specimen. On the 
Lyas specimen, part of the surface, formerly occupied by 
the shell, is now covered with a coat of calcarious spar, 
which shews that the shell was very thin. 

CARDITA ? deltoidea. 
TAB. CXCVII.---Fig. 4. 

Spec. Cuar. Very gibbose, obtusely triangular, 
with 8 or 9 longitudinal rugged ridges ; ante- 
rior side pointed. 

Tue ridges are largest near the posterior part; they 
are very irregularly tuberculated: the beaks being promi- 
nent, and the anterior side pointed, give the triangular 


I have figured a specimen from Peterborough, cast in 
blue Lyas, and encrusted with Pyrites. I have another 
specimen in Cornbrash limestone, from Lechlade, in 
Gloucestershire. I have also a specimen nearly resem- 
bling it, but which may hereafter prove to be a distinct 
species, as it is flatter upon the posterior side, and is 
wider ; it is in a ferruginous sandy limestone, from Kel- 
loways Bridge; a portion of the shell remains upon it : 
it is thick, andis pearly beneath the outer coat. 

These four species of Cardita have been long known by 
the appellation of Heart Cockles, and have been distin- 
guished by their form, and the number of their ridges ; 
both characters are liable to variation, but yet, the four 
species above described, may readily be recognized : it 
would have been fortunate had each been confined to a 
separate stratum. It is impossible to be certain of the 

In Smith’s Stratigraphical System of organized fos- 
sils mention is made of them under the generic name of 
Cardium, first in the Cornbrash, on p- 65, he describes 
the obtusa, and at letter c the lirata ; and refers to them as 
the same that are found in the under Oolite, see p- 104. 
The Cardita producta is refered by him to the Fuller’s 
earth rock. Ihave seen ‘in Miss Benett’s hands a spe- 

cimen of the C. producta, from the inferior Oolite near 

es Whe 

i nage ri oS 

im | ne 
. oo 


i bak eehe 4 a 

Tt mivit’ eerty wi ‘a oh ful ” oe 
Mala wld bo, auirvony 9 sabia Linea 
pion oll dan: od oh age ak fitsa * eit) j 

i ge 
i bs ia | hao wir elldth Qh ta ali iyt god gas 
i es is 1A ved ee an trek Roltag!? iver Fan ae 
ae ic gee all te rane mis Fasnay seta yt ¢ byes me oD 
ey dilhed9\ id aeginaiiny Op: oidail tidal 5 
yi a P > hate oat od eli; ee stead ool eft rob 
yoro a 4X 

_ ee a ot Insandties isvod doe Wich oblate iat ay cia cor Vil ina 

ti aH | i) uid) 190 od a? ol viaka, yet i u *ab shwsa é rie me * 
ea . Amer) hie! mi 

eae saihdiiee’ tos dthoy A Lucie ger mate: wf Olen at, ; 1 
9 . ‘he Hay APH SD We! ines ade tiv ohairt et hada afin, 
1S) east om ev mondvedirnsY ot wi eit sawilna 
| SN ian 1 ob Wishes bin teil, nl} } Bahy ta’ we foto we ei 
La ts ha) ¢ oon miloO rob i AAT int Boece, (yet i daa Scan ma 

be eH RD ‘algn'eh” alt ah i. ye ait oe ui none wruvtal) ote aa), 

on. ¥, “ange fi adncesthh “ ” pipiedy gel By 3 Ian nk dl i aban et | 
i abik e \ foveal ahd Yo ann 
runan! ; of al - tou 401 sohusi ‘ott wen Maite 4 i iy 

; fey PORE Shaan 

- , 7 t F ip 
he | Bee < a ee ia 
a ¢ , i bl 
ao! ; 7 ae yy) ye ae 
> 4 \ 
i T 
= \ yj 
. i i? 
j * 
; 4 
, ‘ ' ri ’ 
 ] a 
ip ic & 
: é 
é ‘ ' 
brn , ‘ 

PHOLAS. Linn. 

Gen. Cuar. A transverse bivalve, gaping at both 
extremities, with one or more accessory valves 
upon the back ; no shelly tube. 

Orxx or more accessory valves, an elongated tooth 
within each beak, and a more or less muricated surface, 
are characters that belong to a family of shells, the ani- 
mals of which bore holes in stone or wood for protection: 

the Pholas of Linneus is the head of it: his 'Teredo also 
belongs to it: the first is extremely scarce in a fossil 
state, the latter very abundant: they are both confined 
to the newer strata. ‘The recent Pholades may probably 
be divided into several genera, characterized by the form 
of the valves, or number of accessory plates: the shelly 
tube will always distinguish the Teredo. 

PHOLAS cylindricus. 

Spec. Cuar. ‘Transversely elongated, nearly cylin- 
drical ; posterior sides muricated, pointed, with 
a sinus in the edge; beaks concealed by a re- 
flexion of the edges of the back. 

Tae general form of this is a slightly compressed cy- 
linder: the valves are transversely striated, and have 
many longitudinal elevations ; where these cross on the 
posterior half, are formed many sharp flat spines, but the 
other side is nearly smooth ; accessory valves have not 
been met with, but from the analogy it bears to P. parva, 
it should seem to be furnished only with one. It differs 


from P. parva in its greater width, and the less degree 
of curvature of the posterior sinus ; it is also smoother, 
and in some respects resembles P. candida. 

The P. Campechiensis, referred to by Parkinson, at 
p- 198, Vol. ILI. is probably distinct. 

I am indebted to Mr. Parkinson for the use of the spe- 
cimens of this tender shell, found, rarely perfect, in 


MUREX rugosus, var. (¢.). 
TAB. CXCIX—Figs. 1 and 2. 

Spec. Cuar. Elongated, subfusiform, transversely 
and uniformly striated ; spire pointed, with 
about 12 longitudinal costz ; volutions ventri- 
cose ; beak short, open. 

Syn. Murex rugosus. Parkinson, III. 64. t. 5. 

f. 16. 

A nove twice as long as wide: in this variety the last 
whorl is nearly free from coste or undulations, it is 
drawn out into a short straight beak ; the outer lip is 
thickened, but appears to have no striz within its edge ; 
aperture elliptical. 

The larger specimen (fig. 1) is in Mr. Parkinson’s col- 
lection ; itis from the Crag, near Malden: the smaller 
one (fig. 2) I picked up at Plumstead from among sandy 

MUREX costellifer. 
TAB. CXCIX.--- Fig. 3. 

Spec. Cuar. Subturrited, transversely striated, 
longitudinally costated ; whorls rather ventri- 
cose ; aperture ovate, expanded towards the 
beak ; beak very short, spreading ; cost nu- 
merous, slender. 

Taurre are about 18 coste or undulations around the 
spire: the striz are sharp and numerous: the aperture 
is about as long as the shell is wide, that is, a little more 

of a | 


than a third of its length: the slightly expanded lip is 
characteristic, it is entire. 

A Crag shell from Malden, in Mr. Parkinson’s col- 

MUREX echinatus. 
TAB. CXCIX.---Fig. 4. 

Spec. Cuar. Turrited; whorls round, reticulated, 
with acute tubercles upon the angles of the 
meshes ; outer lip striated within ; beak short. 

Syn. Murex echinatus. Brocchi, 2, 423. ¢#. 8. 


Tue reticulated surface is produced by a number of 
longitudinal sharp ridges, crossed by transverse chords 
placed at about the same distance from each other, and 
equally elevated with the ridges; at the points of their 
intersection they are raised into short angular spines ; 
the whorls are very round, the last one suddenly 
drawn out into the beak, which, though not long, ap- 
pears to be more taper in the individuals before us than 
in those Brocchi described. The lip is thickened and 
furrowed internally. Length three times the width. 

These specimens, which are smaller than the Italian 
ones, are from the Crag at Malden; they are in Mr. 
Parkinson’s cabinet. It is remarkable that the columella 
is wanted, or eaten out, a circumstance I have observed 
in some recent shells. 


MUREX curtus. 
TAB. CXCIX.---Fig. 5. 

Spec, Cuar. Ovate, pointed, subventricose, lon- 
gitudinally ribbed, transversely striated ; aper- 
ture oval; beak short, recurved ; whorls inter- 
nally striated with elevated lines. 

A sour twice as long as wide, with 12 rounded undu- 
lations or coste upon each whorl; the strie are sharp 
and rather distant, they are stronger upon the base; the 
beak is a little curved and open; the substance is thin, 
therefore the cost appear as concave undulations within 
the whorl. 

An interesting unique shell from the blue clay of High- 
gate Hill. 

MUREX gradatus. 
TAB. CXCIX.--- Fig. 6. 

Spec. Cuar. Ventricose, longitudinally ribbed, 
transversely striated ; spire short, acute ; coste 
varicose above; aperture oval, with a short 
expanded beak. 

Tae enlargement of the coste, which are about 10 in 
each round, produces a square appearance on the upper 
parts of the whorls, which seem to rise above each other 
like steps: the spire is small, and almost slender enough 
to be called mucronate. Width about two-thirds the 
length: the inner lip is smooth. 

From Plumstead. I believe rare, as I have seen but 


iv6 7 Ae 
7 i 
‘ Pal 4 ¢. : 

‘ ee 



ef sondtetadye oat taaoqo b bat x sii a ot 

Bees Y Hodsitte wllart . 
aay ant a ee 
(YO ARE e ol x4 

ae Mt : 1 oy : 

a ) si i nr one: ani) me hes ong 

bas ; ye fe: a ai 

B ise } a: 

. "y y “aidtiw ‘antoitaluban arajaon ° “ea tho aqqe, mbeoo adh wnat 

me ay eu i PES MEG WT Cats -y- at 

as van wage aioe fait Gai snide 

\ ’ .7 
: a 

ast fi an . i" epee 1 RARUM 
Ta 0 aXhy-.KI9Z9. AAT a ae a 

edie! ait LahaaibabN ean hina 
ee an woe ‘icity Sti stele Haars vata. ai 
Howl ‘ elit fave ili? ssvoda? sadattag Me 
spear LAN REE Raat UN ANSE Babine xi aK 

uN | ae ne ra gay’ gonad, ea rc uaaree 
ee iupieeks pony sikh Yue alanine vie 
wate oath ‘bs oon TARO gine se a pvnebong phaware daw * | re | 
| 1Sdi0 dona Seed’ odie OF Wien, hier | wbvawnldendlairdor aang, « ’ 
alos solwale teonn Webi vera et nhs Gah Tease adil. i 
- odt wbgidaowT piuda bie Minderwteee batten Maan 
is wali ypdel®, Tae io iG piyrltooand a qt white) oft a 
‘Sil aged oad Bam) onde ovoitnd ® /dbaptetatie te ater 
4 a inh 4, ng Pay ous - nereNHE NOD i deaoe ' é' 

’ P 
aot eared eholik. ‘ 
; 1 
} & 
‘4 ee 
hl ‘ 
ide “ 



Spec. Cuar. Discoid, very thick; inner turns ex- 
posed; sides concave, largely tuberculated ; 
front fluted, slightly convex; aperture trans- 
verse, almost three times as long as wide. 

A. very bold formed shell; the narrow sides of the 
whorls are much relieved from each other, they are con- 
vex, and occupied by about 10 large obtuse tubercles : 
the great width of the convex margin, which is obtusely 
fluted, gives the whole a very massive appearance. There 
are about five turns, the last but one is in diameter equal 
to the thickness of the whole. 

In a valuable packet of fossils belonging to the inferior 
Oolite, sent by some disinterested friend at present un- 
known to me, from the west of England, was the pon- 
derous mass represented in this plate; it contains the 
ferruginous grains peculiar to that rock, with Belemnites, 
fragments of other shells, and also a piece of wood, 
changed almost into charcoal. I hope my friend will 
make himself known, and communicate the locality. 

I have indulged my feelings of esteem and friendship, 
by giving this magnificent Ammonite the name of that 
staunch supporter of science in general, and of natural 
history in particular, who has presided so long and so 
ably over the Royal Society. 

aie AY re Beni . 
a oral ' th aire onl ' ee, oe 80 
4 + hatali wd yloyral ,otaxdoy aobie re 
i nq 2a nKdd, Ydtgit Baiuld Srdrt: 
Nohiw as shaiist ad wamttit: Nana plata kia i a € 


ahah areininn tt igi 

7 a ' N, mA Wie Hej | ee Beha var yr tA & " rr P yy: iy } P Bia 
; sit ie Thien Wattod ali “dda! fate 
- _=Hoe (bm vou! , sodso tone inoit havoifet dower stm a 

aa dati? senda 3%" sat OF: is pads “ad hi siqitoso., fan 7 
i ‘iteauade nt deity (algun wovicon Hebb 3 oy bien te -_ 

nN y 

wrod'P. sogesanqge avidenin Gry 4 afd uly wig, fe ; a! 
Hauge var casi ins oy », tad, vast 9 rd aati? avi soo de a Ny 
lady ‘out Yo vaso silt ot tin 


i ois ‘it Ps dt yaiuiul: ad dileas Yo Hs Aone aldautavn' te 1 

1a as feradieney Je btoit hotaventalety vaca yd treme onile se 7 
“eh > Hoe at ahve, Haale Te! Ye Jeo gid? nth oh a ‘ ond 

\ ; anit dena og, ti padalq eid} «i bala: Bosca od waar ™ 

ue Pa apenas ott iin 907 edd of us ilueeq auiarg anronig a 

1H ‘boow 10 ‘oaiq. a ala han ‘allo site to atasetee | 

4 “iw hee sith | yan sqad Ee, Mosul otti Jagr. basa h 

CS pied f sith atnolnidadenoct hue cemagoa Hamad salqcm 
‘qidaba: rth bates inaedaar 1a) sda aie ene haaiubal ‘ A 

dod to sevode ail) adisne meni dy - inamdlar gon aida’ 
if ae ‘tor To. baa tn mie 19g), aid onmeitnn Yd maou ior 

Pe see oer Duss ‘inet aa ba viaany aah ee sralisibnady ab y 
" . {toi ives onl 17 J 
a . ; 1 ‘ 5 

: ies ‘ 


AMMONITES Blagdeni. 

Spec. Car. Subcylindrical, obtusely fluted, um- 
bilicate ; umbilicus reaching to the margin, 
conical, with large radii terminating upon the 
edge in a tubercle ; aperture transverse, qua- 

drangular, three times as wide as long. 

Tax umbilicus is deep; it occupies the whole side; the 
tubercles round its edges, about 22 in each turn, are ob- 
tuse in the cast of the inside, but where there are some 
remains of the outer surface they appear to be spiniform, 
there are four or five furrows on the front to each; the 
front is very slightly convex. 

A massive specimen from the lower Oolite, containing 
Belemnites, other Ammonites, &c.: it was given me by 
my lamented friend, Dr. J. C. Lettsom. I have named 
it after the highly discerning, meritorious, yet most un- 
assuming Sir Charles Blagden. The analogy between 
this and the preceding, may remind conchologists of the 
long cordial friendship, subsisting between Sir Charles 
and Sir Joseph Banks. 

oe as ‘ ae. 
me s “gi oeneen visite, é | 

| re guiisniavis) liber -agrtl ivr o 
i | aig Pecovacent ouraqe ; slvods) Phebe 
i ys hee: Ma race ridlaniela opt oy’ 

i e be ye wie 

a pir reas :qiiB of a6 
‘for anw said Wien ak SY sida eas Ui dbo 
asm eta aad Syndhwe deed atlieat silt Yo: feso ont perl 

| etedtiniga sda inagae pdt anatrie env wit Yo ‘wt 
edt aig a ica lhe hid bia reat ott Ona” 
Oo)  artnor (fitgife yer 

siiidined stitoey nsviol add ator? aires aidan 

; ydiom avin daw it o8 Botieroune ls suiller , toloet 
| | fhe extant, red moartod Ae AS daa Biota guar | 
bw tno tye, eattabiodivse gieiinatly Voight si san tv a e 

; —oomntod olan ai? Hob anleataRl) 12" | 

-* | ottt to! steijolodoao tuiitioy Yeo ‘aaitbvove act St . 
eave i Lats ad aes ei oy 7 

d ] 
= ye 
} f ie 
’ 1 
, ' 
/ 4 y 
\ : F a 
j , *. 4 oy ¢ 
y ed 
; i gl ieee 
a a eae 
i \ eed 
: 7 grat " 
oh aves 5 i i 
Ly he m4 i? 2 


AMMONITES Brocchii. 

Spec. Cuar. Compressed; sides hollow, radiated ; 
inner whorls half concealed; front circular, 

with many obtuse ridges ; aperture lunate. 

Sai omen” 

V otvtions three or four, very round ; twenty radii ex - 
tend nearly half over them, the rest of their surface is 
covered by nearly six times as many obtuse, arched, not 
very prominent ridges. Were the hollow sides consi- 
dered as umbilicate, the umbilicus would be conical but 
would have no defined edge ; the aperture is lunate, in- 
clining to transversely elliptical. Thickness half the dia- 
meter. The septa are remarkably numerous, and finely 

From the same friend, and probably from the same 
place, although of a greyer colour, as A. Banksii, I 
received the large specimen; it seems to have been ex- 
posed to the weather. | 

The small specimen is from Dundry, by favour of 
G. W. Braikenridge, Esq. 

The name is to commemorate the author of a recent 

valuable work upon the fossil shells of his own country. 

aya Wit raih Aan ee ran 

ey eee 

i, wey \S te ir. Ren 

| my ih .e0 f ‘ 
® ; i) a 

qa" sila bah ie 
Lili ny i‘? 

hw abil cae chains paneer 
et oonionva oe on ng 
“$i beater ouside yaact aa comitzie yaa ed | 
Os PUR oa avghh teenage 
tnd teainoo of bivaw, emoiticimar odt steotfidaus ae 
“ni aonoul ob antiiope ade ¢ aghe baniiah am svail biliewe 
op -oif af Mad, aeoadaiild Apaitgiily pauls, 
soa Aan aime ii a 
yi8 aad nov gldadony, bua. dale aonb ge mora 
bien A eo ciuolag wyng 2 Yo dyvodile onal 
“ad ms oval at acngae Sf are wavel oil) havivgor 7 ‘ 

nM cindtioger at ob banog 
te eso vont aes Sa i 


VENUS lentiformis. 
Cytherea, Lam. 

Spec. Cuar. Orbicular, depressed, with concen- 
tric, reflected, minute, imbricated, ridges ; 
anterior slope depressed, terminated by an 
angle in the margin. 

Syn. Venus exoleta. Parkinson IIT. 189. 

A. suett that at first sight might be taken for the Venus 
exoleta, from which it is distinguished by the flat space 
upon the anterior slope, and the angle upon the margin. 
The striz are few and much elevated near the anterior 
slope, but soon are doubled, or even trebled, as they pro- 
ceed: upon comparison it is found to be thinner, flatter, 
more closely striated, and rounder on the posterior side. 
The lunette is also more pointed with straight sides. 
From the Crag of Essex and Suffolk, Mr. Parkinson’s 


ne tie tell oth bodigaitely ei i daidoy mort alto) 

bea Aiba ; 
slit 10 

‘jt us 

far Zi 
Cl iy pea ek HMA 
- ‘ in ¥ 


Fed ont a nel hel as ni teil ‘nal ane: a 


leiggyane oF saga of ga old bate, oqolé Ywitotue,oift wae ; ee f 

qoinwhitn ad} an90, bate@rale doom, hus wet cnt othe dB S ty ib a 


Og yout #0 bafdind RA¥ 10 bafdiiob sre aoe ud eqale By ae 
embialt ctonnistt ai of bawot # ti ‘noaiiaggo9 doggy ihase, 
shia wwinateory al} ao isda haa <bababtte theo! oronr 

seobie dibginae diive bolaiog aout, wale at stlonnf ol i , A 
vvonnibe ak alate hain seal Yo wort) adi cient iis na 


‘ - ~ ‘7 4 ‘ <> 
4 Tle A Bak boli’ Wh GaN ly’ #\y an 
f | OF ie 
 enidag 24 
3 | " ‘tee '% Tg =e 
~ > y ¥ ef ' f : ne 
r ; = a's % wt a 
ib * y 
; A gt akan g 
fe) Vile 
a yyy 
\ } Pao t 
- ‘ 
’ iy 
A] rs y 
if A 
y 4 
i r =e , 
ei A 
i Gerad a 
i vi y . j 
Te) |e ve ) 4 rn 
aa > 7 ‘pon 

hs 8 

Pag Page. 
Ammonites angulatus 107 f, 1 *9 Cerithium dubium... 14 f. 5 108 
AUTICUSE sees: 134 75 funatum ... 128 64 
Banksii ...... 200 ~ 229 faniculatum 147 f.1&2 107 
Blagdeni...... 201 231 geminatum 127 f.2 63 
Braikenridgii 184 187 giganteum 188 f.2 199 
Brocchii...... 202 233 intermedium147 f. 3&4 107 
Brongniarti A f.2 190 melanioides ib. f.6&7 109 
IBrookt.).....- 190 203 pyramidale 127 f.1 61 
Bueklandi ... 130 69| Chama digitata ...... 174 165 
Calloviensis 104 3| Cirrus acutus ......... 141 f.1 93 
communis... 107 7.2&3 10 nodosus......... ib. f. 2 94 
Conybeari ... 131 70 plicatus: =... 1b? feed | ib. 
constrictus... A f.1l 189|Cyclas cuneiformis 1627.2 &3 140 
Duncani...... 157 129 deperdita?... ib. fil 139 
excavatus ... 105 5 obovata ...... ib. f4,5, iat 140 
fimbriatus ... 164 145 
Gervillii...... A f.3 189|Gryphza dilatata ... 149 7 1 113 
giganteus ... 126 55 dilatata B... ib. f.2 ib. 
Greenoughi 132 71 incurva,,,.., 112 f.1&2 23 
Henleyi...... 172 161 obliquata... 7b. f.3 24 
Herveyi ...... 195 215 | Hamites armatus..,... 168 153 
inflatus ...... 178 170 | Helix cirriformis...... 171 f.2 160 
Loscombi .... 183 185 Gentie... See 145 101 
monile ...... 117 35 globosus..,....... 170 157 
Nutfieldiensis 108 ll Stratus), Cotscve: 171 f.1 159 
obtusus ....., 167 151} Lima gibbosa ......... 152 120 
plicatilis...... 166 149 | Lymnea fuciformis... 169 f.2&3 155 
rostratus...... 173 163 minima...... ips f. 1 156 
rusticus ...... 177 171 | Mactra arcuata ...... 160 f.1&6 135 
splendens ... 103 ] cuneata ...... ib. f.7 136 
Stokesi ...... 191 205 dublas.oiee. ib.f.2,3, ib 
varians ...... 176 169 &4 F 
vertebralis ... 165 147 ovalis......... ible ey Cae 
Walcotii .:. 106 7 | Magas pumilus ...... 119 40 
Astarte cuneata ...... 137 f. 2 82) Murex carinella ...... 187 f.3&4 196 
elegans......... TD fon 14D. coniferus ...... ib. f.1 195 
lineata ......... 179 f.1 174 costellifer ... 199 f.3 225 
huridalcccccoe 1377 f. 1 ~~ Sl CULMS. c05. te: ib. f.5 227 
obliquata...... 179 f.3 173 echinatus...... ib. f.4 226 
planay Jes. -.5.6 ib. f.2 ib. fistulosus ...... 189 f.1&2 201 
Auricula incrassata 163/.1,2, hus gradatus ...... 199 f.6 227 
= 3 regularis ...... 187 f.2 195 
simulata... 7b. f. 5&8 144 rugosus (8)... 199 f.1&2 225 
turgida... ib. f.4 143 tubifer ... ..... 189/.3—8 201 
Buccinum elongatum 110 f-1 15)  etriatus B(carinatus)109 13 
granulatum ib. f.4 —18|Nautilus Comptoni... 121 45 
reticosum ib. Hi: 2 M7 elegans : ae 116 33 
rugosum... ib, f.3 16 intermedius 120 o3 
Cardita deltoidea ... 197 f.4 220 obesus ...... 124. 51 
lipateayewadssace 1D shard, jatOs simplex...... 122 47 
obtusa ~..... ib. ihe 2 219 sinuatus EH 194 213 
producta ... ib. f.1 ib, striatus...... 182 183 
tuberculata 143 o7 truncatus ... 123 49 
Cardium proboscideum156 f. 1 127 | Nucula Cobboldia... 180 f.2. 177 
semigranulatum 144 99 levigata ...... 192 f.1&2 207 
umbonatum ... Meri baa lanceolata ... 180 f. 1 178 
& 4f~ minima . 192 f.8&9 209 
Cascis bicatenatus ... 151 117 pectinata...... ib. f.6&7 ib. 
Cerithium Sepueenie i Fy 197 similis........ ib.f.3,4, ; 207 
a ari &4 & 10 


Tab. Page. Tab. Pages 
Nucula trigona ...... 192 f.5 208}Pleurotoma rostrata 146 f.3 104 
Orthoceraannulata... 133 73 | —— semicolon ib. f.6 106 
Ostrea accuminata.,, 135 f.2&3 78] Sanguinoaria asi | 159 133 
canaliculata ib. f.1 77 lowaysii 
deltoidea .., 148 111] Spirifer cuspidatus... 42 
gregarea...... 111 f.1&3 19} Tellina obliqua ..... 16h f-1 7 
palmetta ... 111 f. 2 20 obtusa ..... earl FO 7. 4 7S 
Patella equalis ...... 139 f. 2 87 ovata ......... 161 f.2 138 
ee vists..qcbsiens ib. f.3&4 86] Terebratula acuta ... 150 f.:1&2115 
latissima ..... . ib f. 1&5 85 TOYA ...200-+6 138 f.2 83 
rugosa ...,..... ib. f.6 87 octo-plicata 118 f.2 37 
URE WIS a5 25055 ib. f.7&8 88 pectita...... 138 f.1 83 
Pecten Beaveri ...... 158 13] plicatilis ... 118 f.1 37 
equivalvis ... 136 f. 1 8395 resupinata.. 150 /.3&4 116 
fibrosus ...... ib. f. 2 S4BQ Wilsoni ... LIS f.3 38 
orbicularis ... 186 193} Trochus abbreyiatus 193 f.5 212 
Phasianella angulosa 175 f.2 168 anglicus ... 142 95 
mOAyMita |s.-9 tO ei) ABs concavus... 181 f.3 1806 
orbicularis ib. fe L 167 dimidiatus ib. f.4 181 
Pholas cylindricus... 198 223 duplicatus. ib. f. ‘ ib. 
Plagiostoma car- elongatus . 193/.2. 
dhiformis a 8 3 ee ; 7 & vic . 
obseura...... 114 f.2 28 levigatus... 181 ; LES 
ovalis ...... IDiofi dys NOT punctatus... 193 f.1 211 
pectinoides #b. f.4 28 similis ...... 181 f.2 179 
punctata ... 113, f.1&2 25] Unio crassissimus ... 153 121 
rigida ...... Wasi = 27 crassiusculus... 185 191 
Planorbis cylindricus 140 f.2 90 hybridus......... 154 f.2 124 
equalis ...... 1b. f. 1.89 Pisteri!.2..2... 5 bh Ot ae 
enomphalus 4b./.7,8, a: 92 &4 
& 9 Venus gibbosa ...... 155 f.3&4 126 
hemistoma., ib. f.6 91 incrassata...... ib. f. 1&2 ibd. 
AEDST oss oc: ib. f.4 ib. lentiformis..... 203 235 
obtusus ...... ADs. os! | MAb. TuSstiGa, <5,..6-52 196 217 
radiatus...... ib. f.5 92] Voluta ambigua, var. 115 f.5 31 
Pleurotomaacuminatal46 f. 4 105 Lambertti...... 129 65 
attenuata ib. f.1 103 luctator ...... 115 f.1 29 
colon...... ib. f.7&8 106 SPinosa , ..evers ib. f.2&4 30 
comma... ib. f.5 105 spinosa 8 ... ib. f.3 ib. 
exorta ... 146 f.2 104 

Page 13, line 3, for “ «” read B. 
42, line 10, add TAB. CXX. 
61, “ CERITHIUM pyramidalis” read CERITHIUM pyra- 
Pages 77, 79, and 81 to 88 descriptive of tabs. 133 to 138 read 
73, 75 and77 to 84. 
Page 88, line 14, add and 8. 

95, «“ TROCHUS similus” read TROCHUS anglicus; sonamed 
to distinguish it from a French shell extremely like it, and to 
avoid a repetition of the name similis. 

124, “ UNIO hybrida” read UNIO hybridus. 

126, line 27, dele “ and 4.” 

129, last line, “ Neotts”? read Neots. 

179, line 2, “ Fig. 2” read Fig. 1. 

201, line 7 from the bottom “‘ CKXXIX”’ read CLXXXIX. 

Iam informed by Miss Benett that it is the Chalk marl, and not the 

lower or hard Chalk that is characterized by the AMMONITES varians, 
Tab. 176; it has, however, been found in the hard Chalk, see page 169. 



For the following localities I am indebted to Mr. 
Holloway. I trust that I shall be enabled to extend 
a list so important to Geologists, at some future 

Cardium Plumsteadiense, Tab. 14, fragments are found at 

Cassis carinatus, Tab. 6, Stubbington. 

Dentalium cylindricum, Tab. 79, Sand pits, Emsworth 

Dentalium entalis, Tab. 70, Stubbington, filled with pyrites. 

Fusus longevus, Tab. 63, ditto, small. 

Melania sulcata, Tab. 39, Bricklesham Bay, Sussex. 

Natica depressa, Tub. 5, East Cowes, Isle of Wight. 

Pecten quinquecostata, Tab. 56, Emsworth, in Flint. 

Pectunculus costatus, Tab. 27, Stubbington, worn. 

Rostellaria? lucida, Tab. 91, ditto. 

Scalaria acuta, Tab. 16, ditto. 

Trochus Benettie, Tab. 98, ditto. 

Turritella conoidea, Tab. 51, Bricklesham Bay. 

Venericardia planicosta, Tab. 50, Stubbington. 

Voluta spinosa, Tub. 115, ditto. 

The Chama digitata, Tab. 174, has been found by Prof. 
Hailstone, at Huntcliffe, near Redcar, N. of Whitby, Yorkshire. 


my! i Chan. 

i ” tne, 

“ ph Pa gine 

ae pe ; A iheny me a eet ree Hers ah 

; ee: a ae a si.s aah, TALON “A siaioa ; | 
ine han ie : 

ug i) oe 4 
| * , a iy ti hs : te ehh ; yi Me i 

i) ae 

is aM ot baidabai. ng i eee it odd te f 
Sete. of holes od Wade T sess bur T " “sutwllal 

ou) tut qunda 3° 2 atigolea® “ad inate 

anti yeni +e ; ak en 

: i f ra, phy ‘¢ ‘ uy lt Nada ae aa? 2% F 
Me a: # anit; » vin) a fougei anit f, OND senaibiisteevat anita’ 

Se Ry ay? a ai yeriinn, 46003 Hi (G12 

i ' . sos ge iddota 2 Ai} enlaces eluaa), 
‘Ato weni’ tig -bae® 22) ..d0k enuainhajlye coviloran t 
My ig sided . Oh aa yee FOr ig 
aotineg a iw hall ustony aiddmin OF wd : ailasae” Peasy | 
2 Nat * deta oni £8 By . erigeguol euet it 4 
VO Woe Rae alk rade torth 08 ANY ad vali sical | 
‘ he  ddpiW 6 aie shod tas 2 oh) 
ve it, ob dro ween DOE AD alls 
NN es a” elk TO NE pohucideliste Dine bw va ‘eolasnns © ‘) 
} ONE TN hee a sony LG AS Teh ont F Tettalistot 
na eb: Ns ns hn Ho han Ohh - O4,.dnk ‘sic ghealnstiyi, 
ih one woutih 2 Sat, Bien sf autioon ay 
wt a : (ae ont artaaldristl £5, ant ot! abionen silaiviatt 

2 eR 

f rolgadduie 00 dah shosiaglg sibisvimas 
As i ba. 9) (01 BLT AWY eonige stuloY |” 
ty CAAT yd but caved wad BEL dnl Alasig wif siged). ofT. 
3 atitledio ¥ OY To Mi edhe tea oi ioiaplt, ie 2th! ali 
4 4 / oy - 

" Ibe 


i . Vanni 
Pd Le 
4 ¥ 7 MH as al * y 4) 
i A?) Seer ’ 
- » m ‘ 
; : ne via 
by se i? 
a < be 
wy ye a? "iy a 
; : hepa 
iin ' a 
Ay ) > 
‘ + 

its wee ALT OL 
iy Oe Ee On wT 


Arranging the Shells described therein according 
to the several Strata in which they were found 
imbedded, from the newest towards the oldest 
in the British Serves. 

Twsreap of any prefatory remarks of my own, I will 

insert the following Letter, received from my kind friend 

Mr. Farey, viz. 

highly respectable Correspondents and Readers, for my 

I beg to apologize to your numerous and 

delay in furnishing the Stratigraphical Index, sent here- 
with. I had foreseen, since the perusal of my friend Mr. 
Smith’s “ Stratigraphical System,” Part i. and the three 
first numbers of his “ Strata Identified,” that a great 
deal of care and pains were necessary, (for which I could 
not until lately spare the time,) in collating these works 
of his, with the whole of the stratigraphical information 
contained in all your published numbers of “ Mineral 
Conchology,” before Indexes, at all satisfactory, could 
be made out, for you and Mr. 'Pilloch, such as I had 
imperfectly done at the conclusion of your first volume, 
in September, 1815. 

I was in hopes, that by some delay, my labour in 
hunting through maps for the situations of a considerable 
portion of the places mentioned in your’s and Mr. Smith’s 
works, might ere this have been greatly shortened, by a 
reference to the manuscript Index which my valued 
friend, the able and indefatigable Mr. Arrowsmith, of 
Soho Square, has for near two years been preparing ; 
and which is intended to contain every Name, of towns, 
villages, farms and cottages, mills, mines, collieries and 
quarries, rivers, streams, and water-falls, bays, head- 
lands, cliffs, and light-houses, mountains, hills and val- 
leys, parks, forests and woods, &e. &e.; torether with 
the district names, &c. which are to be found, not only 


in his own large and unparalleled Map of England and 
Wales, but also in all the largest county maps, local 
maps of canals, roads, mining districts, &c. &c. which 
either his own large collection contains, or to which he 
can have access, through the kindness of the friends of 
science: unfortunately, however, for me, this great Index 
io Localities, although all the names from printed maps 
were collected out, (and ascertained by bearings and 
distances,) and it is now rapidly proceeding towards its 
final revision and completion, it has not been in a state 
for me to consult it, as otherwise the kindness and libe- 
rality of Mr. A. would have permitted, prior to its 
publication, which now will soon take place, with the 
addition of the population, and a blank column for future 
eorrections and additions, and to enable this volume to 
be made by scientific, curious, or travelling persons, into 
an Universal Index to Localities in South Britain! 

In my Stratigraphical Index to Vol. I., I took the 
liberty of placing 33 notes of interrogation (?, see Phil. 
Mag. Vol. XLVI. p. 212, note,) after as many species 
of shells, which had (by the places mentioned in that 
volume) been referred to other strata, besides that parti- 
cular stratum, in which I concluded, from your descrip- 
tions, that the specimen drawn and actually described, 
had been found entombed. I could not hope, at the 
time of making these first stratigraphical arrangements 
of the shells and localities which you had described and 
mentioned, that I could escape errors: I regret, however, 
to find, now that further information is afforded, that 
they are so numerous as I find them to be; and more 
so, that the means do not at present exist of correcting 
many errors, which doubtless yet must remain, in that 
and the present Supplementary Index, after all that-I 
can at present do; or, until your kind and generous 
friends and contributors send you up, either as gifts or 


loans, a far greater number of individual shells, diversified 
as much as possible as to their localities, and not forgetting 
in any instances to name and precisely describe these localities; 
without which additions, fossil shells are of no real value 
for improving the present infant state of geological 

In the extended comparison of shells, named by you or 
Mr. Smith, with their places and strata, to which I have 
already alluded, [ have been concerned to find, according 
to the best opinion I can form, from the local facts men- 
tioned by you and Mr. Smith regarding them, and what 
I know of the ranges of the several strata, and of the 
distribution of fossil shells in their peculiar beds, from 
the experience I have gained in such quarries, banks, 
pits, canals, wells, &c. which produce them, almost 
throughout Great Britain, that no less than 104 of the 
shells (including some varieties) already named or 
described in the three works mentioned, should, for 
useful geological purposes, be made to form 279 species, 
each with its own compound name ; or at least, that these 
279 shells of as many distinct beds* of the strata (excepting 
here any errors in the recorded facts) should be distin- 
guished, by the usual addition of Greek letters, as distinct 
varieties. 'This latter plan I have adopted in the Strati- 
graphical Index to Vol. If. instead of merely adding ?’s, 
as I did in the former Index ; and for the information of 
your Readers hereon, I beg the favour of you to insert 
as follows, the names of all the described shells, Xe. 
which as far as I can yet judge, require these marks, to 
distinguish the varieties of different strata, viz. 

* It may be proper to keep in view, that I mean by this term, (as 
all practical men do) the thinnest natural divisions of Strata; and not 
in any case thick masses, or whole mountains, although of one mineral 
species, as some writers imply by its use. 



Species ? 
Ammonrres Calloviensis............ 2 
COMMUNIS.....03...2..0¢ 4 
CONCAVUS sre scars sss cos: 2 
elegans) 2. aginst meena 2 
Clip tICUS evescehs--" seis 2 
FIerve gitciccace.esaeees 2 
MOGIOlATIS st scce-ee oo 2 
Nutfieldiensis ......... 2 
planicosta: .05/.004.-2<. 3 
splendens .......e0-..00+ 2 
BERIAUUS Hs sectycc cee cecclee 2 
tuberculatus........0.+. 2 
MVALCOUI css cote sees 5 
Sape cher (SS p. 55, &e.) 2 
ee... Me 
nO Bay (111) 2 
IAStaYSe ON Abas. pe pa dinsaenenetnce 4 
Aw icila COStata |..-- ccecccesscsenn 7 
Cardita? deltoidea....... eres ue 2 
Iaralia crestareosaciase ater ose 2 
Obtusal Lj): Boies oe Ak 2 
producta..... aan DNECSCS 3 
Cerithium cornucopie ............ 2 
melanioides....... fe: 32, 
Chama rdieitatava st c.s secs o<ctaccsqas 2 
ARN nated eaten . (45) 2 
Cidaris gi ciLeipt Ae, Baud tain senc> 2 
eye pd pc were pares eee 1 e- 
Ris Sep acne shrat PeEOS ee ..(33) 3 
Roe Sear oes onr OCeabeaodec (53) 2 
NOE. SH radian o. Sete ode . (69) 3 
Clavicula cucumerina...... aes arc 2 
Clypeus sinuatus ............. weeeee 2 
Eades sesene(54) 5 
(Obert KRIS Seapaeemedo ocdanncce (70) 3 
Ellipsolites fumatus................ i 
Euomptalus catillus ............. ae 
Gryphea dilatata......... ceeseeeees sl 
AU CUT VARESE) hal cedeese nee 
eee EN The 
1 IG) vb saantnbaadonot Ate ART. ACEO) 2 
Weimar e bbOsaces. sb ccscentessasea saab he 
Mactra gibbosa...,,..0....0-.-.- 2 
PBrebo BORD ECE CECH ee (ON) 2 
Madrepora AeKUOSA? ccusseserent oe 3 
POFPICES. eel .eevstocee’ DD 
Melania Heddingtonensis. eae naa 
Strlatancorsecesisecdsvevevese 1O 
GEPLesSaiectccresenescssncss ace 
Cetera seeatecs seeeeee(64) 3 
Mutexslatugi cise... oss: dtedtievedel veer 




Murexiain goss. iiiv. 4.5. iv aeeaeeene 
Miv.aci an ietehc aint adae eg see (92) 3 
Natica glaucinoides.................. 2 
Nautilus intermedius ....... isied aes 2 
WINGACOSE.. sncees doscakeos 2 
Ostrea acuminata ....c.cceccecseres 4 
etista-alll’ .....cdon. @ asec A 
Gejtoldea:,.;ssceer<teceenetes 5 
CANT UE Cer: Wanna an a Popo ac 2 
AVE DGS INNA ca: ip cateiaisie dara saw ose OMe 
THE OSA Se tds 6 a0 web edadaes oackd 2 
Patella latissima:.¢ uf... .ce de. .dane 
ReCten ATCURtUG! -occcccet a Mereronere 2 
fibrosussicces..t0- a fhe Sed Seay 
quinquecostatus.........0. a 
ee SAA Som A RN A eS (73) 2 
Perna aviculoides.s,, ov: .0-4sacestee 2 
Plagiostoma gigantea............... 3 
Spinosa ..........0.2- 3 
Yai 2d aise biaiplets hacen (8) 2 
Planorbis euomphalus .......... sere 
Pleurotoma rostrata........... sence 2 
Productus aculeatus ............005 2 
Rostellaria. tcp Seen (58) 2 
Scaphites obliquus............-0p.-- 2 
Serpullaverassa tit: ptc.c sacs... isueeees 3 
Necab abana ita ces Baacatee (41) 2 
Spatangus subglobosus?........... 2 
Coo Fis ths veesdea date o-63(20)::2 
Terebratula biplicatay cs: cca (3) 2 
GATNEA Seek bh bees 2 
digona.,....... SOIT. 
intermedia ........ ez 4 
latevalisin.:cccssestacsaes 2 
obsoletal'\. <i) sii ites 8 
ornithocephala ...... 5 
Subrotupda .s....cssc 3 
subundata ............ 2 
Trigonia clavellata.......... ee ciaaesss 7 
Gostatay.. dhe ee.. $..76 
curvirostra ..... AS legac 2 
MIPOCDUS cect deco css eserececceees (41) 2 
DODD Oss seer a4. vopiase ecm sees apa(41) 2 
Tarrilites:costatuss.: .csccasesiseenee ae 
Turritella conoidea, ........ce.c.000 2 
MINTO ACU EUS 27. estes onccussnsectucss 2 
WISteNl moceass eres BABE BcfoseA- 33 
scpaneweceedecloses Bae . (89) 2 
Venus equalis aabeneee Sefiseeaienauascies 2 


Vivipara AUViorUM. sve... oaees 12 


Where dots are used in the above list, in the place of 
the specific or trivial name, reference is intended, to these 
species, which, although not named by Mr. Smith in his 
Strat. Syst. are by his references therein, deseribed, as 
being of the same species, in two or more strata; and in 
parenthesis I have added, the first of his pages, in which _ 
each of such shells occur. 

For an early number of the “ Philosophical Magazine,” 
it is my intention to communicate to Mr. Tilloch, the 
particulars of the strata and places, of each of the above 
279 shells, with references to Min. Conch. and to Mr. 
Smith’s two works on fossil shells; and I intend to ac- 
company the same by a few general remarks, as to the 
great use and importance of fossil shells, in untheoretical 
and useful geology. I am extremely desirous of calling 
the attention of your Readers, and of requesting them 
to contribute all they can, in the way of additional speci- 
mens, and more precise localities, &c.* from the former 
and from new places of the shells in the above list, 
particularly the Ammonites, Terebratula, Ostrea and 
Gryphites, Cardita? Trigonia, Plagiostoma, Unio, Pec- 
ten, &c. 

I have prepared, and shall in a few days send to Mr. 
Tilloch, (as I did on the conclusion of your first volume,) 
a List of the Piaces, alphabetically arranged, and their 
situations, from whence the shells described in Vol. II. 
are mentioned to have been obtained, the stratum at each 

* Where several species or varieties of shells occur in thesinking of any 
particular quarry, well, pit, &c. or in the face of any cliff or bank, it 
would be of vast importance to know, their relative places and heights 
above each other; because this order will be found invariable, in different 
places, after making allowance for those particular species, which were the 
cotemporaries of one or more shorter lived species. 


place, as shewn by Mr. Smith’s ‘‘ Map of the Strata,” 
published by Mr. Cary, (as correctly as the want of 
bearings and distances, &c. in so many instances would 
now permit of being done,) and the species and varieties 
of shells at each place, with references to the plates and 
figures in Min. Conch. 

Conceiving your excellent work, to be contributing in 
a very eminent degree to the solid advancement of 
geological knowledge, I am very desirous to see it pro- 
ceed more rapidly, by appearing Monthly ; and I hope, 
not only that your present subscribers would approve 
this change, but that many new subscribers from amongst 
liberal and well-informed land-owners, and country 
Gentlemen and Ladies, would be attracted, by such an 
announcement of more speedy publicatioa.— Wishing 
every success to your useful undertakings, for promoting 
a more intimate acquaintance with the works of the 
all-wise and beneficent Creator, 

I remain, 
Your obedient humble servant, 


37, Howland Street, Fitzroy Square, 
26th September, 1818, 


A Stratigraphical List of Srrara, SHEeLLs, and 
Praces, by Mr. John Farey, Sen. 

ALLUVIA, Or moved ruins of Strata 
Gryphea dilatata var ¢, tab 149, Pakefield Gravel] Pit 
Patella latissima £, t 139, f 5, Pakefield ditto 
Cowes Rocx of Limestone; or pretended fresh-water Formation! of 
some Writers, 
Helix globosus, t 170, Shalcomb ? 
Lymnza fusiformis, t 169, f 2 and 3, Cowes 
minima, t 169, f 1, Cowes 
Phasianella angulosa, t 175, f 2, Shaleomb? 
minuta, t 175, £3, ditto 
orbicularis, t 175, f 1, ditto 
Planorbis cylindricus, t 140, f 2, Cowes 
euomphalus, «,t 140, f 7, ditto 
lens, t 140, f 4, ditto 
obtusus, t 140, f3, ditto 

Lonpon Cray, upper part, with Ludus Helmontii (dun blue in Mr. Smith’s 
Auricula simulata, t 163, f 5to 8, Barton and Highgate 
turgida, t 163, f4, Highgate 
Cardium semigranulatum, t 144, Barton, Regent’s Park, and 
[White Conduit House 
Cerithium cornucopie a, t 188, f 1, 3, and 4, Stubbington (beach) 
dubium, t 147, f5, Stubbington 
funatum, t 128, Hordle, and Newhaven Castle-hill 
geminatum, t 127, f 2, Barton 
giganteum, t 188, f2, Stubbington, and Grignon 
pyramydale, t 127, f 1, Barton, Hordle, and near 
Murex carinella, t 187, {3 and 4, Barton 
coniferus, t 187, f 1, Highgate 
curtus, t 199, f5, ditto 
fistulosus, t 189, f 1 and 2, Barton 
regularis, t 187, f 2, ditto 
tubifer, t 189, f3 to 8, ditto, Grignon, and Highgate 
Nucula minima, t 192, f 8 and 9, ditto, ditto 
similis, t 192, f 3, 4, and 10, Barton, Highgate, and 
{near Paris. 
trigona, t 192, f 5, Barton 
Pleurotoma acuminata, t 146, { 4, Highgate 
attenuata, t 146, f 1, Stubbington 
colon, t 146, f 7 and 8, Barton 
comma, t 146, 75, Stubbington 
exorta, t 146, f2, Barton 
rostrata a, t 146, £3, ditto 
semicolon, t 146, f6, Stubbington 
Sanguinolaria Hollowaysii, t 159, Bracklesham Bay 
Venus incrassata, t 155, f 1 and 2, Brockenhurst 
Voluta ambigua (monstrosa) t 115, f5, Barton 
juctator, t 115, f1, Barton, near Paris, and Richmond 
spinosa «, t 115, f 2and4, Barton 
—— 2, t 115, £3, Barton, near Paris, and Stubbington 


Crac Marl,* or soft Limestone, iu or on? the London Clay (light brown). 
Astarte obliquata, t. 79, f 3, Holywell 
plana, t 179, f 2, Bramerton, perhaps Alluvial? 
Buccinum elongatum, t 110. f 1, Walton le Soken 
granulatum, t 110, f 4, Holywell 
relicusum, t 110, f 2, ditto 
rugosum, t 110, f 3, ditto 
Cassis bicatenatus, t 151, Bawdsey Cliff 
’ Gryphea incurva f, t 112, f 2, at Birdbrook, Alluvial ? 
Mactra arcuata, t 160, f 1 and 6, Holywell 
cuneata, t 160, f 7, Bramerton 
dubia, t 160, f 2to 4, Holywell and Woodbridge 
‘ ovalis, t 160. f 5, Suffolk 
Murex costellifer, t 199, f3, near Malden 
echinatus, t 199, f 4, ditto 
rugosus £, t 199, f 1, ditto 
striatus « and B, t 109, Holywell! (I. p. 61) 
Nautilus intermedius £, t 125, Birdbrook, and Culford Hall 
Wucula Cobboldiz, t 180, f 2, Bramerton, Holywell, and 
[Roydon Green 
lanceolata, t 180, f 1, Bawdsey 
levigata, t 192, f 1 and 2, Holywell, and Woodbridge 
Patella equalis, t 189, f 2, Holywell 
unguis, t 139, f 7 and 8, ditto 
Pholas cyJindricus, t 198, Walton le Soken 
Tellina obliqua, t 161, f 1, andm, Aldborough, Holywell, Nor- 
»  [folk, and Suffolk 
obtusa, t 179, f 4, Bramerton, Roydon Green, and 
[ Woodbridge 
ovata, t 16], £2, Bramerton, Framlingham, and Suffolk 
Trochus Jevigatus, t 181, f 1, Holywell 
similis, t 181, f 2, ditto 
Unio crassiusculus, t 185, Bawdsey Cliff 
Listeri y, t 154, f 1, Roydon Green, and Suffolk 
Venus gibbosa, t 155, f 3, in Suffolk 
Jentiformis, t 203, Suffolk, and Walton, (Essex Cliff) 
rustica, t 196, Hollesley 
Voluta Lamberti, t 129, Aldborough, Bawdsey, Harwich, and 

Lonpon Cray, lower part, with Woolwich Loam and chert nodules, Pot- 
ter’s Clay, &c. (brown). 

Cerithium funiculatum, t 147, f 1 and 2, Plumstead, (with cherts) 
intermedium, t 147, f 3 and 4, Charlton 

melanioides «, t 147, f 6 and 7, ditto, New Cross, 

[ Newhaven, Castle hill, and Southfleet 

Cyclas cuneiformis, t 162, f 2 and3, Charlton, New Cross, Plum- 

[stead, and Wight Isle 

deperdita ?, t 162, f 1, Charlton, near Paris, Plumstead, 

[and Woolwich 

obovata, t 162, f 4 to 6, Barton, Charlton, New Cross, 

[and Flumstead 

Gryphza dilatataa, t 149, f 1, Bennington, Coney Weston, and 


* In page 67 a sketch of the ‘‘ District of Crag Pits” is given, and the following places 
mentioned, besides those already enumerated in these two volumes, as localities of the 
Crag shells described, viz. Balstead, Brightwell, Foxhall, Melton, Shotisham, Sudbourn, 
and Wherstead heath. 


Lonvon Cray, &e. 
Murex gradatus, t 199, f 6, Plumstead 
rugosus y, t 199, £2, ditto 
Ostrea deltoidea B, t 148, Lopham, and near Paris 
Planorbis hemistoma, t 140, f 6, Plumstead 

Cuax, upper, soft, flinty (green, mostly light), 
Magas pumilus, t 119, Mundesley 
Ostrea canaliculata, t 135, f 1, ditto 
Terebratula octo-plicata, t 118, f 2, Lewes 
plicatilis, t 118, f 1, Margate, and Northfleet 

Cuatx, lower, hard, flintless, but containing fine silicious grains, and 
Totternhoe, Ryegate or Fire Stone, (green, mostly deep). 
Ammonites rusticus, t 177, Comb Pyne 

Cuack Mart, loamy or earthy Chalk, with chalky hard beds, or Clunch, 
red Cawk, &c. (white, No. 2.) 
Ammonites rostratus, t 173, Roak 
splendens a, t 103, f 1 and 2, Folkstone N E 
varians, t 176, Hamsey, Plumpton, and Wilts 
Cerithium melanioides 2, t 147, Hamsey 
Cirrus plicatus, t 141, f3, Folkstone, N E 
Hamites armatus, t 168, Roak, and Sussex 
Nautilus Comptoni, t 12], Earl Stoke 
elegans, t 116, Norton-Bavant and Ringmer 
Nucula pectinata, t 192, f6 and 7, Dover SW, Folkstone NE, 
[and Sussex 
Patella levis, t 139, f 3, Folkstone NE 
Pecten Beaveri, t 158, Childrey, and Hamsey 

Green SAnp, chloritic, micaceous sometimes, loamy (sometimes yellow, 
brown, or red) with Fuller’s Earth, and Sulphate of Barytes, 
(white, No. 2.) 

Ammonites auritus, t 134, Devizes in the Canal 
inflatus, t 178, Under Cliff 
monile, t 117, Sandgate 
Nutfieldiensis a, t 108, Hythe, and Nutfield 
Auricula incrassata, t 163, f 1 to 3, Blackdown 
Cardita? tuberculata, t 143, Devizes in the Canal 
~ Cardium proboscideum, t 156, f 1, Blackdown 
umbonatum, t 156, f 2 to 4, ditto 
Chama digitata «, t 174, Long-Comb Girts 
Helix gentii, t 145, Devizes in the Canal 
Nautilus simplex, t 122,“Boreham 
Ostrea gregarea a, t 111, f 1, near Devizes 
Pecten orbicularis, t 186, Devizes in the Canal 
Flanorbis euomphalus y, t 140, £8, Haldon Hills 
radiatus, t 140, f 5, ditto 
Pleurotoma rostrata B, t 146, f 3, Devizes in the Canal 
Terebratula Lyra, t 138, f2, Chute Farm 
pectita t 138, £1, Horningsham 

Brick Earru, or Blue Marl Clay, on Woburn Sand (blue green, No 3). 
Ostrea acuminata @, t 135, £2, Withyham ? 


Porttanp Rock, Aylesbury, Swindon, Purbeck, Kentish Rag, &c. Lime- 

stone ; sometimes it has beds as white as Chalk, see pp. 58 
and 59, (bright blue. ) 

Ammonites excavatus, t 105, Dry-Sandford, Marcham, and 

t [Shotover Hill 
giganteus a, t 126, Chicksgrove Quarry, Fonthill SE, 
[and Purbeck 

6, t 126, Chicksgrove Quarry 
plicatilis, t 166, Dry-Sandford, and Marcham 
vertebralis, t 165, ditto, ditto 
Astarte cuneata, t 137, f 2, Chicksgrove Quarry, and Chilmark 
Gryphza dilatata B, t 149, f 2, Adlington Hills?, Bromham 
(Wilts), Portland Isle, Radipole, and Rude Cliff 
Plagiostoma rigida, t 114, f 1, Shotover-Hill Quarry 
Unio Listeri «, t 154, £3 and4, New Malton, and Seamer 

Oax-TrEE Cray, of Thame, &c. hard, blue, with nodules of stoney Marl, 
and with Selenites, and Pyritic Fossils, bitumenized Wood, 
&c. Sussex Marble in its lower part? (blue. ) 
Astarte lineata, t 179, f 1, Headington Common 
Ostrea deltoidea «, t 148, Cambridge N, and Headington Com- 
{mon or Shotover Hill 

Cord Rac, and Pisolite under it ; perhaps sometimes deges) in or on the 
Woburn Sand? (orange.) 
Ammonites splendens £, t 103, f 3, Westbrook 
Ostrea gregarea £, t 111, f 3, ditto 

Civxcu Cuay, with beds near its top of Chalk-like Clunch, or Dogger 
Stone, on Alum Shale (dun purple. ) 
Ammonites Duncani, t 157, ‘St, Neots 
Gryphea dilatata y, t 149, Bourn, Calne W, Ilminster S, Sand- 
[foot Castle; and Woburn N 
Ostrea deltoidea y, t 148, Sandfoot Castle 
palmetta, t 11], f2, Marston Field 
Patella latissima a, t 139, f1 Bolingbroke 

Aum Snare of Whitby, &c, imbedding Cement Balls, Jet, &c. 
Ammonites angulatus, t 107, f 1, Lyth, near Whitby 
communis a, t 107, 2 and 3, near Whitby 
Walcotii B, t 106, ditto 
Patella levis, t 139, f 4, ditto 

Kextoway Srone, at Staiths, &c. with blue hard Cores, under Selenitic 
Clay (deep purple. ) 
Ammonites Calloviensis 2, t 104, Kelloway’s Bridge 
Cardita? deltoidea B, t 197, f 4, ditto 
Chama digitata B, t 174, Hunteliffe 
Gryphea incutva y t 112, f 2? Chatley 
Pecten fibrosus y, t 136, Kelloway’s Bridge 
Plagiostoma obscura, t 114, f 2, ditto 

Cornsrash, or Bedford Limestone (brown. ) 
Ammonites Herveyia, t 195, u, near Aswarby (not Spalden) 
Cardita? deltoidea 2, t 197, £4, Lechlade N, and Peterborough 
lirata ZB, t 197, £3 
producta f, t, 197, £1, Paterborough 
Pecten fibrosus a, «136, £2, Chatley 


Forest Marsre (of Whichwood) Stunsfield and Collyweston grey Slate, or 
Tilestones, with Bones, and Vegetable Impressions! (light 

blue, No 6.) 
Patella rugosa, t 139, f 6, Amberley Heath, and Hampton 

Cray uron Urrer Oouite, (white, or light yellow.) 
Ostrea acuminata @, t 135, f2, near Bath E 

Urver Oorite, great or superior Oolite, Bath Free Stone (yellow, No.7.) 
Pecten fibrosus 6, t 136, f 2, Northleach 
Plagiostoma cardiiformis, t 113, f 3, Petty-France 

Funrer’s Earts Rock, lead-coloured, dark and purple Clay, occasioning 
great land Slips (white, No. 8, 9, and 10.) 
Ostrea acuminata y, t 135, £3, Aynhoe 
Plagiostoma ovalis, t 114, £3, Small-Cossall 

Unver Oorite, inferior or lower Oolite (reddish orange, No. 12.) 
Aimmonites Banksii, t 200, Sherborne* 
Blagdeni, t 201, ditto* 
Braikenridgii, t 184, Dundry Hill 
Brocchii, t 202, Dundry, and Sherborne* 
Brongniarti, t A, f2, p 190, Bayeux, and Yeovil 
Gervillii, t A, £3, p 189, Bayeux 
Herveyif, t 195, lo. Bradford, and Knowles Hill 
Stokesi, t 191, near Bridport? (in Marl) 
Walcotii y, t 106, Mitford, and White Lackington 
Astarte elegans, t 137, £3, Babling Hill? 
lurida, t 137, f 1, Fox Hill?, and Taunton 
Cardita? obtusa a, t 197, f 2, Bath, and Dundry 
producta a, t 197, £1, Bath, near Bayeux, and Chapel- 
Cirrus nodosus, t 141, f2, Yeovil 
Gryphea dilatata 2, t 149, f1, Farley Gate 
Lima gibbosa @, t 152, near Bath, Cotswold Hills, and Taunton 
Nautilus obesus, t 124, Norton under Hamdon 
sinuatus, t 194, near Yeovil 
Pecten equivalvis, t 136, f 1, Carrington, Dursley, Farley Gate, 
[Ilminster, and White Lackington 
fibrosus 4, t 136, £2, Carrington 
Planorbis euomphalus £, t 140, f8 and 9, near Bath 
Terebratula acuta, t 150, £1 and 2, France, Ilminster, and Stan- 
[ton Hill 
resupinata, t 150, {3 and 4, Ilminster 
Trochus abbreviatus, t 193, £5, Dundry 
concavus, t 181, f3, Little Sodbury 
dimidiatus, t 181, f land 4, ditto 

duplicatus, t 181, f 5, ditto 
elongatus, t 193, f 2to 4, Dundry 
punctatus, t 193, fl, ditto 

Mantstoxé, in blue Marl, or upper Clay of the Lias, producing a district 
of Ant-hilly pastures, (faint blue, No. 14.) 
Ammonites Walcotii a,\t 106, near Bath 

Sy REE DS a eee Me ae ea a or ae ie Sgpeeeee 
*¥ The Rev. Mr. RACKET kindly and disinterestedly sent these three 
species of Ammonites to Mr. Sowerby, from Sherborne. 


Blue Lis, water-setting, beddy Limestone, with Bones of large Fish (often 
mentioned as Crocodiles,) &c. &c. (deep blue, No. 15.) 
Ammonites Brookii, t 190, Lyme Regis N E 
Bucklandi, t 130, near Bath W 
Conybeari, t 131, Bath W 
fimbriatus, t 164, Lyme Regis N E 
Greenoughi, t 122, Bath W 
Henleyi, t 17%, Lyme Regis N E 
Loscombi, t 183, Lyme Regis N E 
ohtusus, t 167, Lyme Regis NE 
Cardita? lirata e, t. 197, £3, Bath W 
Gryphza incurva @ t 112, f 1, Bath W, Framilode, and Frethern 
obliquata, t 112, f 3, Donat’s Castle 
Nautilus intermedius a, t 125, Keynsham 
striatus, t 182, Lyme Regis NE 
truncatus, t 123, Bath W, and Keynsham 
Plagiostoma pectinoides, t 114, f 4, Pickeridge Hill (in Clay) 
punctata, t 113, f 1 and 2, Barry Island, Cardiff 
[Castle, Donat’s Castle, and Pickeridge Hill 
Trochus Anglicus, t 142, Bugthorp, Weston, White Lackington, 
[and Yeovil 
Unio crassissimus, t 153, Bath W (in Clay) 

Yertow Limestone, buff or magnesian Limestone, with blue mild beds 
near the bottom ? (Derby Rep. I. 157,11. 409) (bright blue.) 
* Unio hybridus, t 144, f 2, Nottinghamshire 
Listeri B, t 154, f 1,3 and 4, Durham. 

Coat Measures, Carboniferous Strata (India Ink. ) 
Ammonites Walcotii 3, t 106, Colebrook Dale, (in Shale or Blae) 
and Trent River? 

DERBYSHIRE Peak LIMESTONE, mountain or metaliferous Limestone, some- 
times interlaid with Basaltic strata, and sometimes with poor 
or barren Coa] Measures (purple blue. ) 

Ammonites Walcotii ¢, t 106, Llantrissent, and Devonshire. 

Cirrus acutus, t 141, £1, Derbyshire 

Gryphea dilatata y, t 149, Bramberry Hill 

Helix? cirriformis, t 171, f 2, Derbyshire 

striatus, t 171, f 1, Derbyshire 

Orthocera annulata, t 133, Colebrook Dale 

Planorbis equalis, t 140, f 1, Kendal 

Spirifer cuspidatus, t 120, Castleton, Cork, near St. Hilary, and 
{St Vincent’s Rock 

Terebratula Wilsoni, t 118, f 3, Mordiford. 

: ‘ 
TS La ADA pe? . , Pu 
4 a eal 

er jie re ee ey, 
ae ep Ae yuliAis eee 
ey ae By). aS ae 5 


ye Teoh i he. 
Dip 4, v4 baa 

: ae 
uf Gir, Ms i.“ ¥ ‘ 

ais | Li Lehed 

1 any i. 

i ee ee ee et ere 


\ Sree ey €, J Ay ae “oN Be | FS. 
Bie ee f Ue £. pene 3! 
ARCA ee ys yo \ Rey